The Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) is a new approach towards health care. This is a holistic way. Unlike other primary care initiatives, which focus more on the symptoms, this new initiative analyses a patient as a human and not as a number.
This patient-centred medical care service focuses on improving a population’s health using better equipment and healthcare facilities. This program is designed in a way to boost primary care services.
The initiative is supported by multi-payers, a robust learning system, and health information usage, helping achieve a healthy population. With lower costs, CPC has proven to aid the health sector for ordinary people.
In the Comprehensive primary care initiative, each patient is analyzed and given a uniquely designed Medicare. This patient-oriented approach helps in meeting each patient’s requirements. Using good communication, each patient is well supported. Coordinate care is provided, and patients from every age group are provided with Medicare services.
1. Primary Care
Primary care is the initial resource for health care. The patient is the core of primary care. Primary care is provided mostly by a physician. This is the ordinary health care offered by health care providers. After giving the primary care, if needed, the patient is then referred to advanced care.
Practitioners in primary care ought to have vast knowledge to analyze a patient. The primary care shortage resulted in the building of new models to ensure better health services.
The major aim of primary care is to improve health by enabling easy access to health care. Primary care also prevents social inequalities in health care, preventing severe illness and early diagnosis of diseases. It focuses on building good patient relationships and increasing health awareness.
The lack of availability of physicians reduces the efficiency of primary care. There is a need for financial support too. The need for new practitioners is also growing. Each nation has its own strategies for primary care.
Healthcare services are much beyond treating illnesses. The arrival of comprehensive primary care helps provide preventive care, treat diseases, and offer awareness about prevention and treatment, counselling, and stratification.
2. What is Comprehensive Primary Care?
According to many research programs, the fault in a patient’s treatment and primary care was found. Patients were not given adequate care, which eventually led to ill-treatment and loss of money.
This paved the way for a new program, which improves quality and efficiency. The comprehensive facility’s quality and efficiency care program was launched. This program was a great initiative by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
The Comprehensive Primary Care CPC program was launched in October 2012. This initiative has its sole intention of improving and strengthening primary care services.
There are five functions for this program. Firstly, it focuses on risk stratification. Then about the accessibility. Thirdly, its functioning is based on planning care for chronic illnesses and preventing diseases. The engagement of the patient and the Care Provider is the fourth function. Finally, the coordination of all Medicare in the medical neighbourhood is focused.
The public and private health care payers are brought under a single branch. Thus the initiative becomes a multipayer system. Payers join primary care by investing in it. This is done under the state health facility. Bonus payments are given to those who provide better care.
Health care is not a time-based facility as anything can occur at any time. So accessibility of health services is essential. It helps in making the service available anytime. This initiative guarantees medical support without any regulations based on time.
In this practice, each patient is assessed, and if they have a chronic illness, a specially designed plan is adopted for their betterment. Team-based plans are also followed in several high-risk cases. Care management and reviewing are done to provide necessary health services.
Patients suffering from multiple illnesses require extra support, which is guaranteed in primary health care. Risk stratification is necessary in such cases.
The comprehensive primary care plan helps to communicate with the patient as well as their family. The preferences of the patient or the family are enquired, and care is provided in that aspect.
Inculcating many patient’s experiences and histories rejuvenates the existing healthcare services. Therefore, the coordination of medical care in CPC promotes healthcare facilities.
The CPC initiative is based in the United States. Earlier in the USA, primary care was underfunded, which eventually led to its failure. The multiplayer design of CPC allows adequate funding. Several regions were selected.
Providing better health care at lower costs was one of the major aims of the comprehensive primary care initiative, and it is possible with the help of an improved system.
With this initiative, the number of people with severe conditions can be reduced as CPC analyses a person fully. Analyzing a person’s health even when they feel normal can help to find severe conditions at an early stage.
Amount of people who recover from the severity of diseases can also be increased with this initiative. The supply of good infrastructure can contribute to this.
As mentioned earlier, this is a holistic approach, and therefore mental and physical wellness is important in CPC. Walk-in appointments are provided in nearby locations.
Each patient is respected and taken care of. Ultimately a long-lasting bonding can be created with the caregivers.
This service not only aims at giving primary care but also helps to promote wellness. Urgent care and preventive care are also given. For patients with chronic illnesses like asthma, care is given in all respects.
Financial support is received based on the services provided. A non-visit-based fee is also remitted. Enhanced payments and patient outcomes are also important in CPC.
3. Functions of CPC
3.1. Risk Stratified Care Management
Risk stratification is a systematic process in which patients are categorized based on their health and other factors. This enables risk-stratified care management. Knowing the risk level of a patient can help in using the resources properly.
Risk levels are recognized using objective and subjective analysis of patient data. This helps in providing quality services for the most unhealthy patients. Risk-stratified care management in CPC places patients at different risk levels. The high-risk patients belong to the highest two levels. Improved care and more attention are given to those belonging to these levels.
3.2. Coordination of Care Management Across the Medical Neighborhood
The coordination of care promotes the flow of information. Effective coordination of care assures ample information for the caregiver. Improving coordination and communication among caregivers promises better patient care, improved care quality, and reduced costs.
The fragmentation of care can be limo using this coordinated care. Sharing clinical information helps in referrals and recommendations.
3.3. Access and Continuity
Patient access to care is an important factor. From a patient’s perspective, access can be defined as the availability of services 24/7. According to the caregiver, access to patient records can be the definition. Such access promotes health care services.
Caregivers work hard to manage each patient’s requirements. They have to care for each patient’s acute chronic or preventative needs. Improving the continuity of care between caregivers and patients helps reduce emergency department entries. Continuity of care can be attained by the cooperation of a patient and a caregiver.
3.4. Patient and Caregiver Engagement
Better health outcomes are seen when the patient is actively cooperating with the caregiver. When the patients cannot participate in the engagement and activation, their family and caregiver engagement is required to support the patient.
Improving communication skills and including a shared decision-making technique benefits patient and caregiver engagement. Giving self-management support also helps the patient positively.
3.5. Planned Care for Chronic Conditions and Preventive Care
People who have chronic conditions highly benefit from personalized planned care. It improves their physical and mental health and also their self-management ability. The caregiver and the patient communicate effectively to develop an action plan. The progress will be monitored. Preventive care is also provided.
4. Impact of CPC
The comprehensive primary care initiative had a positive impact on both the patients and the physicians or caregivers. The quality of health care improved. Better equipment was provided. Efficient care management services were given.
After seeing the results of CPC, more physicians wanted to join this initiative. Monetary benefits were not their central intention. The learning experience and skill development opportunities provided by the comprehensive primary care initiative were the reason.
Even though the work time increased, it became more productive. This helps the practitioners in finding professional satisfaction. Totally, this initiative benefitted the health care service as a whole.
Although the initiative decreased the number of emergency department patients, it did not decrease healthcare management spending.
Comprehensive Primary Care Plus is an advanced system of primary care. The aim of CPC+ is similar to that of CPC. This initiative also focuses on strengthening primary care. It includes different practice choices to meet the requirements of primary care facilities in the United States.
CPC is the foundation upon which CPC+ is built. CPC+ includes all the regions in CPC. The insights from CPC helped in strategizing this new initiative. This new initiative follows practitioners’ availability, care management, improvement in health information technology, and data sharing among practitioners, all adopted during the CPC program for public and private sector partnership practice.
It enables primary care practices more financial support and contributes towards its advancement. It reduces unnecessary services.
CPC + introduces another track that strengthens care delivery requirements for practitioners who have more experience in providing advanced primary care. It also strengthens incentives.
It also promotes technological advancement in the health sector for better communication and coordination.
The CPC+ program ensures the availability of infrastructure. This helps in providing better treatment which directly affects the health of the population positively.
With this initiative, primary care will be accessible, efficient, and full of quality. The core functions of CPC+ are also similar to that of CPC. The main functions are access and continuity, patient and caregiver engagement, planned care and health of the population, care management, and coordination and comprehensiveness.
There are three payment elements: care management fee, performance-based incentives, and payment under the physician schedule.
A better learning system and actionable data analytics are provided for the practitioners to guide them. This redesign is meant for the overall development of the comprehensive primary care initiative. This makes the initiative excel in quality, efficiency, and accessibility.
Many regions have joined in this initiative. Many practitioners follow this initiative. CPC+ has two practice tracks created to meet all the varied needs of the USA’s population. Currently, there are 18 regions in CPC+.
6. Bottom Line
Offering primary care services at lower costs benefits the low-income population. Comprehensive primary care coordinates patient-centred medical care and has been proven to prevent or delay chronic illnesses.
This initiative ended in 2016. After that, CPC+ was launched. The benefits of such an initiative are directly reflected in the health of the population. The number of people in the emergency ward has been reduced.
Incorporating technology in health care services and rebuilding the services is also one of this initiative’s aims. The comprehensive primary care initiative helped the practitioners enhance their skills and give them a better learning environment. This holistic approach helps in building a healthier population.
The coordination and communication between patients and physicians also develop positive health outcomes.
The health of a population is crucial in nations. Introducing initiatives like CPC promotes health care.
7. Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What Do You Mean by Comprehensive Primary Health Care?
To be comprehensive, primary health care must include preventive, supportive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative aspects of care.
Q2. What Are the Elements of a Comprehensive Primary Health Care?
Comprehensive primary health care: preventive, supportive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative and provided close to where people live.
Q3. What Are the Objectives of Comprehensive Primary Health Care?
Community Doorstep Health Services for Infectious, Non-Communicable Diseases (HT, DM Cancer), RCH intervention and mental health services.