Which method helps prevent communicable diseases

You must have observed sometimes we might get a cold or when somebody near us was having a cold. This basic flu which our body catches from another person and can cause a large number of people to get sick.

These types of diseases which can pass from one person to another are called communicable diseases. It can also pass from one person to another person or from one animal to another animal. Communicable diseases are also known as infectious or transmissible diseases. These diseases can be spread by bacteria or viruses spread through contact.

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Some of the communicable diseases are listed below:

  • Chickenpox/Shingles
  • HIV – AIDS
  • Influenza
  • Cold or
  • Mumps


Symptoms are the observable or the signs that are detectable through our behavior. Certain symptoms are shown by infectious diseases which may lead to diseases. Symptoms are what the patient feels and should be verified by the tests.

Symptoms can vary depending upon the disease also. Some people do not experience any type of symptoms. Transmission of communicable diseases has its own signs and symptoms1. Here are some of the general or common symptoms of a number of diseases-

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle aches
  • Coughing


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A communicable disease is an illness, which is caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, and Parasites. Diseases transmit by:


Bacteria are one-celled or single-celled organisms that are responsible for the disease. Some of the bacterial diseases like syphilis, cholera, tetanus, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, strep throat, and urinary tract infections.


Very much smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a wide range of diseases. Like – the flu, common cold, HIV-AIDS, herpes, and parainfluenza2.


An organism that is larger than viruses and bacteria causes fungal disease. Like- ringworms, ‘s foot, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, and fungal eye.


Organisms that live in other organisms like parasite uses the body system to replicate themselves and to complete their life cycle. Some diseases are- malaria, african trapanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

Risk factors

If you get sick easily that means your immune system is weak. This can occur if you:

  • Have HIV or AIDS
  • Have any type of cancer
  • Take drugs or steroids, which suppress the immune system.
  • Have a poor diet
  • Are inactive in physical activities
  • Smoke tobacco
  • Have not taken certain vaccinations.

The above-mentioned risk factors are some of the factors that can catch communicable diseases very easily. To decrease the factors you should avoid the above-mentioned factors in your life. In addition, this can lead to medical conditions like predisposing you to medical, malnutrition, and extremes of age.

Types of Communicable diseases

Airborne disease

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The communicable diseases that spread through the air when you breathe in the pathogenic 3organisms. Some of the viruses or bacteria take flight and come into the air or land on people. When you breathe in air with pathogenic bacteria you get infected with that disease. Eg- mumps, influenza, measles, chickenpox, cold, COVID-19.

Waterborne diseases

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The communicable diseases that spread when you the infected. These infections spread through preparing food and washing clothes alongside drinking. Eg- typhoid, amoebiasis, cholera, hepatitis A.

Vector-borne diseases

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The communicable diseases that spread through vectors. Vectors are mosquitoes, ticks, snails, lice, sand flies, triatome bugs, and fleas that spread pathogens. Eg- dengue, malaria4, chikungunya, chagas, leishmania, filariasis, elephantiasis.


There are simple things that you and your family can do to stop the spread of infectious diseases at home, in public places, in schools, in offices, gatherings. There are some basic measures for everyone to stop the spread of communicable diseases.

Some of the control measures are listed below:

  • Where ever you go in a day avoid touching wild animals and be cautious. Like- dogs, cats, cows, and goats. Wash your hands just after being around animals. There may be infected animals that carry germs that can cause diseases.
  • To avoid diseases acquired from contact with animals the best way is to thoroughly wash hands with soap and.
  • Whenever you bring fruits and vegetables from the market. Always try to wash fruits and vegetables just after bringing them home. Material bought from outside very often carries germs.
  • Try to maintain healthy habits with personal hygiene. Like- washing hands frequently, daily bath, and brushing regularly. Many diseases are transmitted from infectious hands. Keeping personal hygiene is the best way to resolve this problem.
  • Try to maintain distance from the sick person and stay at home. The sick person carries germs in his/her body. So avoid contact with these types of people that carry communicable diseases.
  • Avoid sharing personal items with others. Items that can infect the other person like- needles, razors, toothbrushes, and shared towels. Needles should not be shared, they must be thrown away after being used.
  • Stay at home when you are sick. Try to maintain your distance from others. Avoid meeting with people till you are properly alrighty. Meeting with people can increase the transmission of communicable diseases.
  • Try to avoid eating food from vendors. Sometimes food is contaminated and can cause certain communicable diseases. Contaminated food contains certain bacteria that can cause diseases like diarrhea, constipation, blood, and indigestion.
  • Try to avoid drinking tap. Always RO or mineral whenever you are outside. Contaminated carries certain bacteria that can cause certain diseases like typhoid, malaria, cholera, and dengue.
  • If it is not possible to wash your hands in a public place or. Try to keep a hand sanitizer with you. Hand sanitizer contains certain antibacterial properties that help kill certain bacteria, viruses, or microorganisms that are on your hands. Hands should be washed or sanitized frequently to avoid diseases like- COVID-195, cold, and.
  • Clean your kitchen regularly. The kitchen is the main source of diseases. In the kitchen, the cleanliness should be very strictly followed. Preparing food with proper hygiene will prevent the transmission of diseases.
  • Clean your household with anti-microbial disinfectant. EPA certified disinfectants are the registered anti-microbial products that are effective against some of the blood-borne or body fluid pathogens. Eg- lizol, savlon surface, godrej potrek and many more.The products contain EPA registration number which is the single most important piece of information for tracking pesticide products. The registration number indicates which company contains the registration for the pesticide product and in what sequence the product was submitted to EPA by the company.
  • For Non-Veg eaters, raw meat should be bought from a good and hygienic shop. Should be washed and cooked properly. Especially raw meat should be from an animal that died naturally. Not due to any kind of disease. Diseases transmission can be from a dead diseased animal to a normal person.
  • Do not leave food in the kitchen. Always keep the food in the refrigerator, especially in summer. Left food carries bacteria that can transmit diseases.
  • Cover your nose when sneezing. Always use a handkerchief to cover your mouth and nose during and cold. Hand washing is a basic necessity when you have a cold or.
  • Keep your household surface clean and anti-bacterial. Apply soap or anti-bacterial liquids available on market for floor and bathroom cleaning.
  • Diseases easily spread in known unknown ways. We should avoid the transmission of communicable diseases. Many communicable diseases spread vectors as mentioned above. So avoid breeding in your coolers. Try to clean and dry the cooler when not in use.

The above-mentioned diseases are some of the most effective ways. Preventions can help a person from the transmission of diseases from one person or animal to another. Therefore, prevention is better than cure.

Disease transmission is the main problem in communicable diseases. That leads to infectious diseases from one person to another. Many communicable diseases, spread all around you. To remain away from communicable diseases do follow the preventions.

Communicable disease surveillance

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A multi-component system that monitors and analyses data. Enhance control efforts of a communicable disease. A practice by which the spread of disease is monitored to make patterns of progression. It is crucial because it contributes to better prevention and management of communicable diseases.

Surveillance is a continuous and systematic process that consists of three primary activities:

  • Collection of data from a specified population, time period, or specific area.
  • Meaningful analysis of data on the disease
  • Dissemination of data on the disease


It determines the extent of infections and the risk of disease transmission in communicable diseases. So, that prevention and control can be taken according to the diseases. It detects disease outbreaks as soon as they spread.

Always stay protected from these diseases. Communicable diseases spread very easily. To stay prevented from such kinds of diseases. The above-mentioned preventions should be applied in real life. Starting from washing hands to cleaning and drying coolers. These preventions should be followed to stay prevented communicable or infectious or transmitted diseases.

The above listed are just basic suggestions not a permanent solution for the diseases. Many infectious diseases still spread even after taking prevented. Therefore, we cannot guarantee you that the following kind of prevention will never spread communicable diseases. But, taking the right precautions helps keep them to a minimum.

Read more from us here: Icy Health

  1. Aiyegbusi, Olalekan Lee, et al. “Symptoms, complications and management of long COVID: a review.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 114.9 (2021): 428-442. ↩︎
  2. DeGroote, Nicholas P., et al. “Human parainfluenza virus circulation, United States, 2011–2019.” Journal of Clinical Virology 124 (2020): 104261. ↩︎
  3. Denamur, Erick, et al. “The population genetics of pathogenic Escherichia coli.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 19.1 (2021): 37-54. ↩︎
  4. Varo, Rosauro, Carlos Chaccour, and Quique Bassat. “Update on malaria.” Medicina Clínica (English Edition) 155.9 (2020): 395-402. ↩︎
  5. Ciotti, Marco, et al. “The COVID-19 pandemic.” Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences 57.6 (2020): 365-388. ↩︎

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