What are Neurological Disorders : 6 Common Disorders

The human nervous system is a highly specialized and complex network that controls the brain or spinal cord and connects them. The nervous system coordinates actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different body parts.

So, the question is, what are neurological disorders? Simply put, when there is some disturbance within this part of the nervous system, it can cause neurological disorders1 or diseases.

What are Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders are medically defined as disorders or diseases that affect the human body and nervous system, including nerves throughout the body, brain, and spinal cord.

Neurological disorders can result in structural and biochemical abnormalities in the brain. They can result in poor condition of the nerves, seizures, low coordination with the brain and sense system, body paralysis and confusion, pain, and other abnormalities in consciousness.

what are neurological disorders
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Neurological disorders include many disorders such as learning disabilities, brain tumours, neuromuscular disorders, and muscle weakness.

Some neurological disorders are congenital, and some are caused by trauma2, tumours, infections, degeneration, and structural defects in the body’s nervous system.

Neurological problems depend upon where the damage in the nervous system happens, and it determines what condition of the body is impacted, such as communication, hearing, movement, vision, and cognition. Neurological disorders affect millions of people worldwide.

As a result of environmental factors or some external links, there are various neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis3, epilepsy, seizures, infection, and severe headache disorders and diseases.

It is very important to understand the symptoms of neurological disorders so that the person can lead the correct treatment and diagnosis of their neurological conditions.

This article is all about what are neurological disorders. Here we cover six common neurological disorders and their treatment options.

6 Most Common Neurological Disorders 

1. Alzheimer’s Disease:

Inside Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurological condition that causes brain cells to shrink and die. It is the most common cause of dementia which leads to the continuous decline of behaviour and social skills and affects the person’s ability to keep functioning.

It is thought to be caused by the abnormal buildup of the protein around the brain cells called amyloid 4or tau that causes the plaques and tangles within the brain cells.

Memory loss and confusion are more common symptoms of this disease. Brain cells degenerate and die eventually, destroying memory and leading to other mental conditions. Medication and management can help, but the condition can’t be cured.

This neurological disorder can last for years or can be life-long. These patients need round-the-clock care to help with basic daily functions such as sitting, walking, and drinking water.

There are 7 stages to this neurological disorder:

  • Stage 1: pre-symptoms appear
  • Stage 2: basic memory lapses
  • Stage 3: difficulty in remembrance
  • Stage 4: Confusion and memory loss.
  • Stage 5: behaviour problems and loss of emotional control
  • Stage 6: Lack of environmental health
  • Stage 7: loss of physical control and the appearance of physical symptoms

2. Parkinson’s Disease

Understanding Parkinson's disease

It is a brain disorder that causes uncontrollable movement and difficulty in balance and coordination with the brain and affects the central nervous system.

In this neurological disorder, nerve cell damage in the brain causes the dopamine level to drop and starts with a tremor on the one hand and can worsen with time in such a way that a person may have difficulty walking and talking.

Currently, there is no cure for this neurological disorder, but some treatments can help the patient maintain their life, such as physiotherapy and medication.

But the fact is that the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease5 is devastating.

In the early stages of the disease, the patient may show different or no facial expressions, and their speech may slur. However, the symptoms worsen as the condition decreases over time.

In this disorder, neurons and nerve cells break down and die, and it causes abnormal brain activity that leads to neuromuscular disorders.

This disorder’s main causes and complications can be thinking difficulties, chewing and eating problems, bladder problems, and sleep disorders. As this disorder is unknown, the ways to prevent it remain a mystery.

3. Headache

Headaches are one of the most common neurological disorders and can affect anyone at any age. However, there are many causes of headaches, such as sleeping disorders, brain injuries, or lack of blood flow in the brain.

But, severe headaches usually result in migraines and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA6).

Migraine is the most common type of headache disorder and affects many people globally and can occur at any age. Some primary headache disorders include hypnic and cluster headaches.

There are various causes of primary headache disorders, such as sleep cycle disturbances, and headaches’ symptoms may include pain in your head or face. This can be throbbing, constant, sharp, or dull.

Obstructive sleep apnea OSA is a medical condition that causes a disturbance in breathing for a short period during the night.

It is caused by the collapse of the air with tissue and blockage of the air at the entrance of the lungs. It should be treated early if it is diagnosed because it will progressively worsen with age and weight gain.

Practising good sleep hygiene and participating in stress-relieving activities such as meditation, stress management, biofeedback, and physical exercise can help promote healthy brain function and reduce headaches and pain.

4. Epilepsy and Seizures

Epilepsy & Seizure Disorder | Clinical Presentation

Epilepsy is the most common neurological problem, including electrical abnormalities in the brain and spinal cord and disturbances in nerve cell activity, causing seizures.

It may result from a genetic disorder or a brain injury such as a stroke or trauma. During seizures, the patient may experience some behavioural changes and behavioural problems.

It can affect both females and males of any race and age. There are many medications, dietary changes, medical devices, and surgical options for treating the condition, but there is no cure for epilepsy.

5. Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy - (DETAILED) Overview

Cerebral palsy is a congenital disorder that makes a person unable to move, maintain balance, and maintain proper posture. It is one of the major common neurological disabilities in childhood that causes abnormal brain development.

The neurological symptoms are rigid limbs, involuntary motions, floppy, and abnormal postures. This disorder needs medical attention with the help of a healthcare professional and long-term treatment, including physical and drug therapy.

Its specific causes are the problems that affect the baby’s brain growth in the mother’s womb. The brain dysfunction and damage result in the loss of the oxygen supply, known as periventricular leukomalacia.

6. Stroke

What is a Stroke? (HealthSketch)

A stroke occurs when the brain and spinal cord are affected by a blockage in the blood supply due to the blood vessels rupturing.

A stroke is an underlying medical condition in which the brain and nerves are damaged and begin to die within minutes due to the lack of oxygen.

Symptoms may include paralysis, blurred vision, confusion, lack of responsiveness, behaviour changes, loss of balance, nausea, dizziness, and weakness in the arms, face, and legs.

The stroke is of three categories:

  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

Transient ischemic attack symptoms are similar to a full stroke, and a blood clot usually causes it. It occurs when the blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked. It can be treated with emergency medical attention, drugs, and treatment.

  • Hemorrhagic Stroke

There are two types of hemorrhagic stroke: intracerebral and subarachnoid. It occurs when an artery in the brain leaks. It causes pain in the brain, and blood from the artery creates pressure in the skull and swells the brain cells and tissue.

  • Ischemic Stroke

This stroke occurs due to the blockage in the arteries that supply the blood to the brain. Two types of the block can result in an ischemic stroke; cerebral embolism and cerebral thrombosis.

Cerebral thrombosis occurs when the blood develops clots in the blood vessels. In contrast, cerebral embolism, also known as embolic stroke, occurs when a blood clot forms in the arteries or heart that move through the bloodstream to the brain.


Neurological disorders affect the central and peripheral nervous systems; these neurological problems vary but include congenital abnormalities, infections, tumours, and mental disorders.

Neurological disorders are responsible for tumours, skin problems, infections, mental disorders, memory impairment, and breathing problems.

The result of the infection by the tumours and neurological disorders can result in an impaired quality of life and dependency on the need for help for daily basic personal care.

Lifestyle changes, physiological therapy, and pain management can be associated with overcoming neurological disorders.

Physicians can’t cure many neurological disorders, but rehabilitation can assess the patient to treat the symptoms and restore daily care.

The current therapies are limited to treatments, but the improved outcomes (therapies and drugs) come with overall intractability.

I hope this article was clear enough to solve all your doubts about what are neurological disorders.

  1. Feigin, Valery L., et al. “The global burden of neurological disorders: translating evidence into policy.” The Lancet Neurology 19.3 (2020): 255-265. ↩︎
  2. Coimbra, Raul, et al. “European Society of Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES) recommendations for trauma and emergency surgery preparation during times of COVID-19 infection.” European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 46 (2020): 505-510. ↩︎
  3. Masrori, Pegah, and Philip Van Damme. “Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a clinical review.” European journal of neurology 27.10 (2020): 1918-1929. ↩︎
  4. Hampel, Harald, et al. “The amyloid-β pathway in Alzheimer’s disease.” Molecular psychiatry 26.10 (2021): 5481-5503. ↩︎
  5. Bloem, Bastiaan R., Michael S. Okun, and Christine Klein. “Parkinson’s disease.” The Lancet 397.10291 (2021): 2284-2303. ↩︎
  6. Gottlieb, Daniel J., and Naresh M. Punjabi. “Diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea: a review.” Jama 323.14 (2020): 1389-1400. ↩︎

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