Blood in Semen Causes and Treatment: Health Guide

Are you aware of the blood in semen causes? No? Don’t worry; we have you covered.

Semen is a complex fluid secreted by the male reproductive system1. Semen consists of the sperm and the fluids released by the testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, and other glands.

The presence of blood in semen is also called hematospermiathe. Although men become anxious to see the blood in their semen, it is usually not a symptom of a serious health problem; it may also be the first symptom of genitourinary cancer.2

Hematospermia by Dr. Neil Baum

Experiencing the blood in the semen can affect younger men, but it is usually common in men aged 30 to 40.

In 60% of the cases, a doctor may not be able to identify the exact cause. If the bleeding happens only once, then there is not a serious issue, but if it occurs again and again, it can be caused by any serious problem. The likelihood of there being a serious underlying problem is very low.

1. Blood in Semen Causes

When there is blood in your semen, there is a chance that the blood usually comes from either seminal vesicles or the prostate.

There are many possible causes of blood in semen, including brachytherapy3, gonorrhea, hemophilia, orchitis, vasectomy, Chlamydia trachomatis4, epididymitis, genital herpes, and prostatitis.

What are causes of Haematospermia  (Blood in Semen)

Some major underlying causes are discussed here:

1.1. Infection

An infection can be a possible cause of blood in the semen that may result in painful urination. Sexually transmitted infections such as herpes and gonorrhea 5can cause bloody semen.

Viral, fungal, or bacterial infections can lead to this bleeding. Urinary tract infections can also lead to bloody semen.

1.2. Inflammation

The inflammation in the urinary tract, glands, and spermatic ducts can result in the blood in the semen. Inflammation can also be caused by stones in the prostate gland or urinary bladder.

Inflammation in the epididymis also causes blood to appear in the semen. A person may experience other symptoms such as pain in urinating and pain in the penis or groin.

1.2.1. Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra leads to burning and itching near the opening of the penis.

1.2.2. Prostatitis

Inflammation in the prostate gland can result in urination problems, sexual dysfunction, and other abnormalities. It can be a chronic issue due to inflammation.

1.3. Tumors

Prostate Cancer Animation

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, benign growths or polyps in the prostate, epididymis, and testicles can lead to semen blood.

The most common tumor to cause semen blood would be prostate cancer. In this situation, the person may experience the blood.

1.4. Injury

Sometimes, a minor injury can rupture the blood vessels in the prostate. When an injury happens, a person may notice additional symptoms such as swelling, chronic bleeding, and blood vessel problems.

1.5. Ruptured Blood Vessels

The fluids released by the testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, and other glands, join the sperms as a part through the urethra tubes; if there is a breakage in the blood vessels along this route to the urinary system, the broken vessels can leak blood in the semen or urine.

Injuries, infections, and prostate issues can result in the appearance of blood in the semen. This may also happen if the person takes blood-thinning medication for other health conditions.

1.6. Physical Trauma

Physical trauma to the sex organs after pelvic fracture,6 injury to the testicles, excessively rigorous sexual activity, or another injury can cause blood in the semen. Trauma to the genital or pelvic organs; This trauma can be acquired from straddle injuries.

1.7. Other Factors

Some rare factors that can cause the blood in your semen are HIV, leukemia, liver disease, enlarged prostate, physical trauma, prostate cancer, prostate biopsy, amyloidosis, testicular cancer, warfarin side effects, schistosomiasis, taking drugs that cause bleeding such as warfarin, ejaculatory duct obstruction, and cysts or polyps in the bladder.

2. Risk Factors

Certain risk factors can lead to the blood in semen. You can see the blood in your semen for specific risk factors and reasons. These may include:

  • Having a hereditary history of prostate diseases
  • Having a medical history of prostate issues, including prostatitis
  • Being the age of 30 to 40
  • Having a urinary tract or sexually transmitted infection
  • Experiencing symptoms for longer than three to four weeks

3. Diagnosis of Blood in Semen

The person may first recommend the family physician. The doctor recommends the most tests by evaluating the person’s sexual history, medical information, physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging by wellness professionals. The following tests are discussed:

3.1. The Prostate Physical Exam

A doctor may conduct a physical exam to check for lumps, swelling, and redness in your genitals.

3.2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI with an endorectal coil can be used to detect prostate abnormalities and cause persistent hematospermi without any identifiable cause.

3.3. Urine Culture

What is Urine Culture  ?

If the doctor suspects the urinary tract infection to be a cause of the blood in your semen, they recommend a urine culture.

It is a lab test to check the bacteria and other germs in the urine sample.

3.4. Transrectal Ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound is the test used to detect abnormality in the rectum and the prostate.

It is a method that creates images of the organ, including the prostate, and it is used to perform an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy evaluation of the prostate gland in men.

3.5. Sexually Transmitted Disease Test

A sexually transmitted disease test is recommended and suggested by the doctor to detect any sexually transmitted disease.

This test is tested using a urine or blood sample and having a doctor screen the sample to detect sexually transmitted diseases.

3.6. Prostate-Specific Antigen

This test is a blood test that helps to detect prostate cancer. It is used to monitor men after surgery or radiation therapy for prostate cancer if there are chances of cancer recurrence.

This PSA test also detects prostate cancer and measures the level of the prostate-specific antigen in the blood to detect the cause of the hematospermia.

Medical technicians will use a needle to draw the blood from the vein, and the blood sample is analyzed in the lap to measure the PSA level in the blood.

3.7. Prostate Biopsy

A prostate biopsy is a test to remove a sample of suspicious tissue from the prostate gland. During this test, a needle is used to collect the number of tissue samples from the gland.

4. Treatment of Blood in Semen

Usually, the blood in semen doesn’t require any treatment. It often goes away by itself in a few days or a few weeks. If the cause of the blood in your semen has been diagnosed, then treatment may be needed.

4.1. For Treatment of Breakage in Blood Vessels

If there is a breakage in the blood vessels along the route of the urine to the urethra, your doctor will recommend prostate surgery or prostate biopsy.

4.2. For Treating the Infection

An infection can be a possible cause of blood in the urine that may result in painful urination. In rare cases, the blood in the semen can be a warning sign of cancer.

In such cases, careful evaluation by the doctor is recommended if the bleeding doesn’t stop by the medical treatment.

The risk of cancer is low because cancer in the blood is in between 4 to 6 percent of the population.

5. Some Potential Treatments for Blood in the Semen May Include

  • Antibiotics for urinary tract infections
  • Medications, chemotherapy, and recommended surgery for removing malignant tumors are used.
  • Anti-inflammatory medication and medical procedures to treat inflammation
  • Finasteride is a medication that shrinks the enlarged prostate and can stop hematospermia.

It is an authoritative experience that the combination of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and medications releases the symptoms of blood in your semen and can relieve them in 96% of cases.

Most cases of hematospermia heal on their own. The person needs to monitor the symptoms and alert the doctor if they worsen for several weeks or months.

6. Conclusion

The appearance of blood in the semen can cause some severe problems, but receiving proper treatment can prevent it from worsening. The suggestions from your doctor can reassure you that nothing is wrong with your system.

A single blood cell in the semen is not an emergency, but it may be best to see the doctor in a more severe situation. Many peer-reviewed studies and popular articles critically review the blood in semen and its related medical conditions.

Men younger than 30 must not experience blood in the semen. But if it occurs, it can be another sign of urinary difficulties or primary symptoms of prostatitis. Many Healthline media websites provide the causes, diagnosis, and treatment for bloody semen and all related medical procedures.

The incidence of cancer is low in younger men — only 0.6% to 0.5% of cases occur in men younger than 45. But for men of any age with risk factors for cancer, testing for prostate cancer may be the most reassurance for treating blood in semen.

In large prospective studies with relevant experience, >80% of men reported hematospermia lasting up to 4 weeks following prostate biopsy (10– 12). However, there was no demonstrable association between the duration of bleeding and the biopsy result.

7. Frequently Asked Questions

7.1. How can I treat red sperm at home?

Most cases of hematospermia resolve on their own. Simply, allowing your body to heal on its own can treat it automatically. However, if causes too much pain, you should take a doctor’s help.

7.2. Can kidney problems cause blood in sperm?

Yes, Kidney stones can cause blood and even inflammation in semen.

7.3. Should I worry about blood in sperm?

Usually, it is not a worrisome condition to have blood in semen. But it could be a symptom of serious health conditions like prostate cancer, or genitourinary cancer. Therefore, it is advisable to first see your healthcare provider to be sure.

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  1. Creasy, Dianne M., and Robert E. Chapin. “Male reproductive system.” Haschek and Rousseaux’s handbook of Toxicologic pathology (2013): 2493-2598. ↩︎
  2. Sousa, Mariana S., et al. “A clinical guide to the management of genitourinary symptoms in breast cancer survivors on endocrine therapy.” Therapeutic advances in medical oncology 9.4 (2017): 269-285. ↩︎
  3. Chargari, Cyrus, et al. “Brachytherapy: An overview for clinicians.” CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 69.5 (2019): 386-401. ↩︎
  4. Brunham, Robert C., and José Rey-Ladino. “Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine.” Nature reviews immunology 5.2 (2005): 149-161. ↩︎
  5. Morgan, Mackenzie K., and Catherine F. Decker. “Gonorrhea.” Disease-a-Month 62.8 (2016): 260-268. ↩︎
  6. Flint, Lewis, and H. Gill Cryer. “Pelvic fracture: the last 50 years.” Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 69.3 (2010): 483-488. ↩︎

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