What Causes Type 1 Diabetes in Children – Important Things

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes in children is an autoimmune disease. It is present or can say the individual has this disorder by birth. This condition leads o the destruction of the beta cell of the increases which in turn causes an insufficient supply of the hormone called insulin.

The less production of insulin leads to the condition called hyperglycemia. The hormone insulin helps in blood sugar control. The low level of insulin leads to high blood sugar levels in the body. That is why insulin is a very important hormone to regulate blood sugars level in the body.

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that requires insulin replacement and intensive efforts by the individual. Insulin therapy is prescribed for type 1 diabetic patients.

Treatment is generated to decrease hyperglycemia while at the same time minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia. The complex mechanism of glucose is affected very much by food, lifestyle, and body stress as well as exercise.


  1. Contrast the etiologies of type 2 and type 1 diabetes management.

  2. Contrast the various risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus.

  3. How the management of type 1 also called diabetes mellitus differs in adults and children

  4. Importance of improving coordination between the interprofessional team.

To enhance care for children which are affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Type 1 diabetes in children

It happens when there is autoimmune destruction of the beta cell of the pancreatic islets which leads to the insufficient production of the hormone called insulin and results in ina a condition which is called hyperglycemia.

Type 1 diabetes in children is a chronic disease that requires intensive efforts on the part of the individual with diabetes.

The first focus is to reduce the condition of hyperglycemia while also managing the condition of hypoglycemia. The balance of glucose is very much affected by the individual lifestyle.

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The child having Diabetes Mellitus have some family history of this disease. The child having this disorder have to go through multiple daily injections to prevent serious complications. And for healthy living. For the child healthy living, he/she has to have a very controlled and designed lifestyle.

Diabetic type1 is a result of both environmental and genetic factors. It is the autoimmune reaction of the body. which leads to the destruction of cells of its own body. In the HLA cell line when observed, it is found that only 30% to 40% of factors are related to genetics while more than 50% of genes have been found through individual genes and genome-wide association.

A triggering result is suspected to start or initiate the recruits antigen-presenting cells to transport to the cell, beta cells self-antigen to start the autoreactive T cells.

Because of the failure of the self-tolerance, these T cells stats beta-cells killing and causes inflammation leading to insulinogenic and another type of diabetes called symptomatically.

This has different stages the first one is called the Stage 1: which refers to the presence of beta-cell autoimmunity, but it has normal glucose monitoring, stage 2 refers to the stage in which abnormal glucose handling but no overt symptoms was found and the last and final stage is the stage 3: which refers as the clinically-apparent symptoms of insulinopenia. Children with this stage are at a very increased risk of heart disease.

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The children have to be on high medication to prevent complications. The medical care of such children is very difficult and challenging. The children at the third stage have referred to maintain a healthy lifestyle and healthy eating. Managing diabetes in small kids is very challenging.

Along with medication some environmental factors also play a very vital role. With growing age, such children are given adolescent health care along with other necessary things. Regular urine tests are among them.

Diagnosis Of Type 1 diabetes in children

There are various tests that will help to diagnose type 1 diabetes in children. These include:

Glycated Hemoglobin Test

It is also known as the A1C test. This test will tell the average blood sugar level from the last three months. It will also check the percentage of blood sugar which will attach to the hemoglobin which is the oxygen-carrying protein of RBC (Red Blood Cells).

The more the level of blood sugar the higher the amount of hemoglobin that will have to attach to the sugar. The 6.5 % or more than its A1C level in different tests shows that the child is suffering from diabetes.

There are some conditions that will make the test inappropriate for an individual that the test will give false-negative results. These conditions are the uncommon form of hemoglobin or in the common term, we can call it a different hemoglobin variant.

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Random Blood Sugar Test

In this test, the blood sample is taken at a random period of time. And the results are confirmed after many tests. The units in which blood glucose level is determined are mg/dl and mmol/l. The test will perform when the child is showing some the symptoms like extreme thirst, weight loss, and frequent urination.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test

In this test, the sample is collected after the overnight fast. If the test shows that the level of blood glucose is less than 100 mg/dl then the child is not suffering from type 1 diabetes. But if the blood glucose level is more than 100 mg/dl then the child needs medical help as he/she is suffering from type 1 diabetes.

Things To Do After Diagnoses

Take the doctor’s appointment regularly. As the doctor will make a proper report of increment and decrement of the blood glucose level after or before the medications. The doctor will tell about the proper diabetes management. Medications are given on the basis of several factors like age, and weight.

Along with this, the doctor will also go for the proper urine test as well for check the level of cholesterol. The doctor will also check the proper functioning of the kidney, liver, and thyroid gland.

Celiac Disease control

This is the only way to manage the symptoms of celiac disease and diabetes millets is a type of disease. The meaning of this is to follow a strict gluten-free diet or Food without gluten helps to heal the small intestine and stop future inflammation and problems.

Following this helps in reducing health complications in diabetes in children. Too much sugar is avoided by such children. Blood sugar levels and blood tests should be done at a particular interval of time as suggested by the doctors.

History And Physical

At present children have a history of polydipsia and poluria with weight loss for days to months to years. If there is a delay in the diagnosis there may be lethargy, vomiting, and altered mental status. Insulin management is typically coordinated by a pediatric endocrinologist every quarter.

Such children will present with Ketoacidosis that is associated with the features mentioned below:

  • Ketones smell

  • Dehydration

  • Pain in the Abdominal area

  • Kussmaul breathing

  • vomiting

  • coma

  • Mental altered status


To avoid diabetes complications in children evaluation is required. Evaluation includes blood pressure monitoring, and high blood glucose monitoring. Proper evaluation of insulin reaction in the body. Also, regular monitoring of the diabetes symptoms, whether they are increasing and decreasing or if there is any improvement in them.

Proper insulin doses should be given to the children having this disease. Monitoring of the beta-cell which are insulin-producing cells should be done. These things have o be evaluated at a regular interval for preventing serious complications in the patient. The children having this disorder have automated insulin delivery devices so, that they can be used in the time of emergency.

Immune system attacks

In Type 1 diabetes in children, their immune system attacks their own immune system by killing the insulin-producing cells Beta-cells.

These cells help in regulating blood sugar levels. high as well as low blood sugar is harmful to the individual. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes.

In this insulin is produced less by the cells and as a result high blood sugar levels or can say high blood glucose levels are present which causes a condition called hyperglycemia. the condition called hypoglycemia in this low blood sugar is present in the blood vessel.

Blood glucose level plays a significant role in the other metabolism of the life cycle. Blood glucose levels can alter many metabolic reactions. Blood sugar levels have a particular range in normal human beings or in normal individuals.

What Is The Need Of Blood Sugar Level

The blood sugar level is very important in the individual life cycle, as there are some muscles that only take energy in the form of glucose. If the sugar level is low or the blood sugar level is very high then those organs will not work properly. That is why maintaining blood sugar is very important.

For children, the normal blood sugar level is 70 to 140 mg/dl.

The brain and skeletal muscles are the muscles that only take energy from glucose levels. If blood glucose levels are not normal then these muscles may collapse.

Hence maintaining and monitoring the regular blood glucose level. High blood sugar can damage these muscles which also, leads to paralysis. Therefore optimum blood sugar is very important for everyone.

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Insulin is the hormone that usually regulates the blood glucose in the body, It is the only hormone used to fulfill the demand for blood glucose. And it becomes very important to maintain a balanced blood glucose level for the patient having diabetes.

The patient having diabetes militias has to take insulin injections to maintain the glucose level in the blood, They must carry the insulin pump with them to avoid a serious condition.


Insulin helps the body to convert food into energy, but when you have diabetes, then you are not either not producing enough insulin or your insulin function is off. Producing enough insulin is very important for the body if enough insulin is not produced then the food is not converted into energy.

In type 1 diabetes in children, the insulin-producing cells are attacked by their own immune system. Such patients or children also have the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.

This type of type 1 diabetes found in children is also called juvenile diabetes and type 1 diabetes is also very common in young adults.

Children with type 1 diabetes have regular blood sugar monitoring along with regular blood tests. If very high blood sugar is found then the gluten-free diet is referred.

If average blood sugar levels are found then the treatment is moved forward with the same medication which is given to the particular patient, but a continuous glucose monitor is required. Type 1 diabetic patients are generally not able to produce insulin, in that case, insulin pumps are refereed.

It is advised by doctors to take a healthy diet. A healthy diet should be included in the lifestyle.

American Diabetes Association

ADA American diabetes association is a US-based nonprofit that helps to educate the public about diabetes, both type 1 diabetes and type 1 diabetes. They also educate people about diabetes management. As diabetes management is very important for people having diabetes. They also educate people to maintain healthy lifestyle habits which reduce the risk factors.

It is a network of around 565,000 volunteers which includes the 20,000 healthcare professionals and other staff members. The healthy range of blood glucose is between 140 mg/dl.


The ADA was founded in the year 1939. It was the first time founded by the six physicians. They notice many things in the society such as blood vessel disease, child’s blood sugar diseases, too much insulin in the blood, and many other serious complications which occur due to diabetes, but at first, people are not that aware of diabetes, they use to think that how a newborn baby can be affected by diabetes. That is the time when they decided that they need to make people aware of these things and then they founded ADA.

Every year the ADA hosts Scientific sessions, a regular meeting for diabetes professionals. The ADA has around 20,000 members.


The ADA organization has a significant amount of telemarketers including a contract with InfoCision. The 20 members of ADA receive around compensation of 5.3 million. The Charity Navigator gave the organization a 2-star overall rating and a 4-star rating in accountability.

Treatment Of Type 1 diabetes

There are many treatments that are provided to the child in the case when the blood glucose level of the child is high. They are as follows:

  • The proper dose of insulin is given to the child before eating the food.

  • The child is supposed to eat only healthy food. Food that contains oil and more spices is banned for the child.

  • The sweets are not supposed to give to the child.

  • Maintain the proper protein, fat, and carbohydrate count which will also help in treatment.

  • The blood glucose level is frequently monitored.

  • The child is supposed to do proper exercise and physical activities daily and have to maintain proper body weight.

Types Of Insulin Used In Treatment

There are four types of insulin which are used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The types of insulin are:

Short-Acting Insulin

It is also known as regular or soluble insulin. It is also known as neutral insulin as well. Its onset of action is 30 min. Its peak remains for one to three hours. Its duration is 4-8 hours. We have to inject it around 15-20 mins before the meal.

Rapid Acting Insulin

Its onset of action is 5-15 min. Its peak remains for 30-60 minutes. Its duration is 2-5 hours. It should be injected before starting to eat the food.

Intermediate Acting Insulin

Its onset of action is of 1-2 hours. Its peak remains for 4-8 hours. Its duration is 8-12 hours.

Long-Acting Insulin

Its onset of action is 30-60 min. It does not form a peak. Its duration is 16-24 hours. We have to take it only once a time in a day.

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Diabetes is a disease in which a particular hormone level increases or decreases. The hormone here which is responsible is insulin. In type 1 diabetes the insulin-producing cells are attacked by their own immune system and are destroyed which results in the very low or not at all production of insulin.

Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood glucose level in the body of the individual. Insulin also helps in the conversion of food to energy, mainly glucose, and there are some muscles in our body that only take energy from the glucose, they can not take energy from any other means.

As per the data given by statista, around 652 thousand children are suffering from type 1 diabetes across the world.

In type 1 diabetes the cells for this hormone is attacked by our immune system only and as a result, the insulin level in the body gets decreased, those people or those children who are having the type 1 diabetes have to take regular injections of insulin to maintain its level in the body. The children having type 1 diabetes have a special diabetes team they are specially trained for this thing only. Patient having type 1 diabetes has to be very cautious and they have to be kept safe from any other diseases or from viral infections.

Because the immunity of such persons is very weak and any other disease can make their condition more serious.

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Content is medically reviewed periodically by professionals for accuracy and relevance. Reviewers include doctors, nurses, mental health professionals, and even medical students. 


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