What Causes Foot Cramps? Treatment & Remedies

Foot cramps are a form of muscular cramp1 that most often affects the arch of the foot, the area between the toes, or the top portion of the foot. To cure foot cramps, people might attempt a variety of therapies and treatments.

Muscular cramps are uncontrollable muscle spasms2. These spasms might happen in the middle of the night or during regular activity.

Foot cramps, like other muscle cramps, may produce moderate to severe discomfort until the leg muscles relax and the muscle cramping stops. A mild massage or stretching exercises may frequently aid in the muscle’s recovery.

Foot cramps are a regular occurrence that should be treated with caution. People who suffer from regular or persistent foot cramps should see their doctor.

Up to 60% of individuals say they have nocturnal foot cramping3. Spasms might occur just once or many times during the night, resulting in sleeplessness and discomfort.

The good news is that these cramps normally don’t cause alarm. While they may be linked to medical disorders like diabetes or hypothyroidism4, stretches and lifestyle modifications may help to alleviate or eliminate them.

A variety of factors might cause this condition. In this post, we’ll go over the most frequent causes of foot cramps and how to avoid and manage them to make your feet beautiful to click awesome feet pics.

Photo by Esther Max / Flickr


The majority of causes of foot cramps5 are innocuous and only last a short time. Muscle cramps are usually simple to treat and avoid. The causes of foot cramps are listed in the sections below.

1. Potassium deficiency

Potassium is an electrolyte that aids in the modulation of processes necessary for muscular action and maintenance. When potassium levels go too low, cramping in the feet and legs might occur.

Potassium shortage, also known as hypokalemia, occurs when a person’s potassium levels are consistently low.

2. Certain Medical Conditions

Changes in how your neurological system operates may be caused by medical illnesses such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or diabetes. Muscle spasms and cramps in your feet and toes may result from this.

Medications might also have adverse effects that induce muscular cramping:

  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • an abnormal heart rate
  • constipation
  • Hypokalemia6 is diagnosed by measuring potassium levels in the blood and urine.

3. Overexercising

Muscle cramps may affect people of all fitness levels, from novices to elite athletes, if they press their muscles too hard compared to their normal activity levels.

Exercise-related muscular cramps are the most prevalent ailment that needs medical treatment when individuals engage in sports, according to a 2019 article.

Overworked muscles might spasm more and create foot cramps if people push themselves too aggressively during a workout or sports practice.

4. Shoes that are too tight

When a person’s shoes are overly tight, blood circulation to the foot is reduced. The muscles in the foot might cramp if blood circulation isn’t as good as it should be. This is the sign of Peripheral artery disease.

The following are signs that a person’s footwear is too tight:

  • The bottoms of my feet are becoming numb.
  • A lack of capacity to wriggle your toes in your shoes,
  • An uncomfortable rubbing of the heels or toes
  • The shoes leave indentations in the foot.

People may avoid circulation difficulties by changing their restrictive footwear with well-fitted shoes.

Treatments and remedies

The finest cures and treatments will differ based on what is causing the cramping in one’s foot. Cramping may usually be relieved with simple stretching and soft massages.

Potassium supplements may treat muscular cramps caused by low potassium levels. Otherwise, potassium-rich foods such as potatoes and bananas may be eaten to supplement their diet.

The majority of individuals should be able to manage dehydration by consuming water or electrolyte-containing beverages. Intravenous fluids 7may be required in certain situations. Dehydration may need medical attention if a person cannot keep fluids down.

If a person’s foot cramps are caused by overexercising, they may minimize the amount of time they spend exercising or the intensity of the activity. Sports massages may also be beneficial.

When shoes cause cramps, individuals might ease them by changing their shoes. Many shoe businesses provide foot-measuring services to assist customers in finding shoes that are the right size.

If a drug causes cramping, the patient should inform their prescribing doctor. A doctor may be able to recommend a different medicine or treatment strategy.

Finally, a healthcare practitioner may be able to provide medicine, creams, or other treatments to aid with nerve damage issues.

What to do about nocturnal foot cramps and how to avoid them?

Doctors do not prescribe any particular remedies for nocturnal foot cramps. Instead, it’s preferable to address the root of the problem.

Keep doing what you’re doing if you’re frequently exercising. Leg and foot cramps may be avoided by moving about day and night.

Are you new to working out? Consult a doctor or other medical expert for advice on a strategy that will work for you. To begin, take quick walks around your area in supportive shoes or engage in other low-impact exercises.

Anecdotal evidence shows that a few minutes on an exercise bike or treadmill before bed may assist with nocturnal leg and foot cramps, according to a 2012 research.

  • Relax and stretch your muscles.

Stretch your foot muscles daily to keep them fluid, particularly before and after a sweaty workout.

What if you have a cramp in the middle of the night? By flexing your foot and pushing down on your affected muscle, stretch your foot softly yet strongly to remove the cramp.

Both foot and leg cramps may be relieved by walking about and jiggling your leg. In the long run, deep-tissue massage may be beneficial. Any remaining soreness may be relieved by taking a warm bath or shower or applying ice.

  • Examine your footwear.

Wear comfortable, supportive shoes, particularly if you walk a lot on hard terrain.

A heel counter is the component of your shoe that helps to keep your heel in place. In terms of offering support during the day, shoes with a sturdy heel counter may be preferable. Foot cramps may be avoided by wearing well-fitted shoes.

Your doctor may recommend you to a podiatrist for custom inserts if you’re experiencing problems or can’t locate any comfy shoes.

  • Drink plenty of water.

Experts suggest that males drink 15.5 cups of fluids per day and women drink 11.5 cups. Cramping may be avoided by keeping your muscles hydrated.

Your urine should be light yellow to clear, as a general rule. Consider drinking another glass of water if it’s darker than that.

Pregnant or lactating people may need more liquids each day from Trusted Source to achieve their hydration requirements. If you’re worried about your body’s hydration, talk to your doctor.

What are leg cramps?

Leg cramps are a frequent and typically painless ailment in which the muscles in your leg become tight and unpleasant all of a sudden.

Although it most often affects the calf muscles, it may affect any leg area, including your foot and thighs.

You may have discomfort and soreness in your leg for many hours after the cramping has faded.

Cause for secondary leg cramps.

Leg cramps may happen for no apparent cause (idiopathic leg cramps) or as a sign or consequence of a medical illness (secondary leg cramps).

Secondary leg cramps may be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • pregnancy
  • exercise
  • Statins, for example, are one sort of drug (medicines that help lower cholesterol levels)
  • liver ailment

During an idiopathic leg cramp, your muscles abruptly contract (shorten), producing leg agony. A spasm occurs when you lose control of the afflicted muscle.

Cramping might last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. You will be able to control the afflicted muscle after the spasm has passed.

How to Relieve Your Pain?

Toe and foot cramps usually go away on their own. However, if you get regular or chronic cramps, there are certain things you may do to relieve them.

These may include the following:

  • Drink lots of water: Keeping your muscles hydrated helps them maintain the proper balance of electrolytes and water.
  • Wear shoes that fit correctly: Shoes that fit correctly enable your feet to move and operate as they should.
  • Regularly exercise, including a mix of strength, balance, and flexibility exercises: Exercise aids in the normal functioning of your muscles, joints, tendons, and nerves.
  • Consume a diverse range of healthful foods: A balanced diet provides your body with the nutrients and electrolytes it needs to operate properly.
  • Check the doses on your meds to ensure they’re correct: Whether you’re taking medication for a health problem, go to your doctor or pharmacist to check if the prescription is the source of your toe cramps. Never change your medication without consulting a medical practitioner.

When should you visit your doctor?

If your leg cramps are harming your quality of life, such as if you experience regular leg cramps or they are interfering with your sleep, talk to your doctor.

Your doctor will inquire about your symptoms and do a physical examination of your legs and feet. They may also inquire whether you have any other symptoms, such as numbness or swelling, which might indicate secondary leg cramping due to an underlying disease.

You may need more testing, such as blood tests and urine tests, to rule out other disorders in this scenario.

How to treat nocturnal leg cramps?

Leg cramps may usually be alleviated by exercising the afflicted muscles. Exercising your legs over the day might help to prevent leg cramps.

1. Stretches

Stand with the front part of your feet on a step and your heels dangling over the edge to stretch your calf muscles. Slowly drop your heels till they’re below the step’s level. Hold for a few seconds before returning to the beginning posture with your heels up. Rep the process a few times more. This is one of the self-care measures.

Medication becomes necessary only in the most severe cramping that does not react to activity. Treating the underlying cause of secondary leg cramps may help reduce your symptoms and help in preventing leg cramps.

Leg cramps that develop during pregnancy should disappear after the baby is delivered. It might be more difficult to treat cramps that arise due to severe liver illness. Medication may be part of your treatment approach, such as muscle relaxants.

Leg cramp prevention

If you suffer leg cramps often, stretching the muscles in your lower legs daily may help avoid or lessen the frequency of the cramps.

Stretching your calves each night before bedtime could help you with nocturnal leg cramps. The following nighttime tips may also be beneficial:

  • If you’re lying on your back, make sure your toes are pointing up. Placing a pillow on its side at the foot of your bed with the soles of your feet pushed up against it may assist in maintaining your feet in the proper position.
  • Hang your feet over the edge of the bed if you’re lying on your back; this will keep your feet relaxed and prevent your calf muscles from clenching and tensing.
  • Keep your blankets and sheets as loose as possible.


  • Foot cramps usually go away on their own after a few days of home therapy, such as stretching, or a change in lifestyle, such as drinking more water.
  • If your cramps are causing extreme pain or detect any swelling, redness, or other changes to the foot or surrounding tissues, see a doctor or medical specialist.
  • If your toes and feet cramp often, you’re probably curious as to why. Not drinking enough water, not getting enough exercise, and wearing shoes that aren’t a suitable fit are all common causes.
  • Certain medical illnesses and the medicines used to treat them may have a role in the issue.
  • Exercise, improved diet, and other minor improvements may often alleviate toe cramps. Your doctor can assess if a medical condition causes it and provide you with advice on dealing with it.
  • If the leg cramps occur regularly and do not better with modifications in your routine, you should schedule an appointment.
  • The majority of foot cramps are treatable and avoidable. Foot cramps may be prevented and treated by eating a healthy diet, drinking enough water, and following a moderate exercise plan.
  • If nerve damage is the cause of the foot cramps, medical therapy may be required to alleviate the discomfort.
  1. Simchak, Anthony C., and Robert M. Pascuzzi. “Muscle cramps.” Seminars in Neurology. Vol. 11. No. 03. © 1991 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 1991. ↩︎
  2. Kowal, Lionel, Roger Davies, and Patricia M. Kiely. “Facial muscle spasms: an Australian study.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 26.2 (1998): 123-128. ↩︎
  3. Allen, Richard E., and Karl A. Kirby. “Nocturnal leg cramps.” American family physician 86.4 (2012): 350-355. ↩︎
  4. Gaitonde, David Y., Kevin D. Rowley, and Lori B. Sweeney. “Hypothyroidism: an update.” South African Family Practice 54.5 (2012): 384-390. ↩︎
  5. Sontag, Stephen J., and Jean N. Wanner. “The cause of leg cramps and knee pains: an hypothesis and effective treatment.” Medical hypotheses 25.1 (1988): 35-41. ↩︎
  6. Gennari, F. John. “Hypokalemia.” New England Journal of Medicine 339.7 (1998): 451-458. ↩︎
  7. Hoorn, Ewout J. “Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.” Journal of nephrology 30.4 (2017): 485-492. ↩︎

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