Is Depression Hereditary? A Detailed Guide

Depression disorders (DDs) constitute an increasingly popular form of psychopathological pathology. CDC says that around 350 million people are affected by DD, with the worldwide prevalence of DDs varying from 3 % in Japan to 11.6 % in the US. This prevalence can vary between 8 and 12 % in the majority country. DDs were the third biggest disability-causing event worldwide in 2020, followed by cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. DD entails several negative medical and socio-logical impacts that significantly impact the quality of life and adaptation capabilities.

The question of whether “is depression hereditary” involves critical analysis.

Is depression hereditary?

Your parent or sibling had depression, and maybe you’re worried you might suffer from depression too. Or perhaps you’re concerned that because you have depression, you’ll pass it on to your child. Before delving into the question, let us first understand some theories regulating the functioning of our body.

1. The cytokine theory

When we discuss “is depression hereditary,” we must discuss certain specific theories. Historically, brains are considered immune-favoured cells kept in check by a blood-brain barrier; now, it has been observed immune cells affect nerve cells. Signals of proinflammatory inflammation can travel through the peripheral areas of our nervous systems. In addition, cytokines can be released by astrocytes, microglia and, sometimes, neuronal cells. Molecular molecules are believed to contribute to neuronic growth, plasticity, synaptogenesis and tissue regeneration. The hypothesis that the immune system is bidirectional with CNS 1has been suggested since the early 1980s.

2. The circadian rhythm theory

Circadian rhythm oscillates with an inverse periodicity of 24h and regulates many physiological and behavioural processes. The circadian rhythm regulates endogenously cyclic oscillations in mammals, as the suprachiasmatic neuron in the anterior hyaluronic muscle is 93. 94. Its patterns may vary to make it possible for the circadian clock to advance, slow or maintain constant at different pathological conditions affecting other organs or being altered by other pharmaceuticals or hormones.

3. The monoamine theory

In the 1960s, Joseph Schildkraut proposed monoamine-like theories in the case of depression. It was built on the successful treatment of depression by iproniazide (monoamine-oxidase inhibitors). It was a reuptake inhibitor. According to this theory, monoamine neuro mediators (serotonin, norepinephrine) insufficiency can cause depression.

Is Stress a cause of depressive disorders?

Is depression hereditary
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Symptoms of depression are proximally associated with recurring stress. However, the response to stressful situations implies stability or maintenance of homeostasis2, but long-term activation of the stress systems can cause dangerous or fatal effects. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and its three principal components — hypothalamic neurosecretory cells, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex — are required by organisms for adapting and mobilizing the environment.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention states that anyone can become depressed, regardless of age, gender, race, or background. Studies on depression and heredity have not shown many outcomes, regardless of that person’s history. Based on extensive studies on people with depression, it appears that the hereditary aspect of depression is about 42% for ladies and 29% for men. This highlights the particular proven fact that several depression genes are located in female sex genes, which women are at higher risk of inheriting depression.

There is evidence that depression can run in families, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to developing depression. Research is in the early stages, though, and much remains unknown about the genetic basis of the condition. Studies suggest that variations in many genes, rather than one single gene, combine to increase the possibility of developing depression. It is sometimes hard to specify that “is depression hereditary”.

In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified types of social and economic factors that are associated with status disorders, including depression:

  • Access to healthcare
  • Housing
  • Social isolation
  • Living environment (neighbourhood)
  • Level of income
  • Level of education
  • Nutritional status
  • Employment

Is depression treatable?

Depression is treatable, usually easily so. Current medications are very effective for several people, and psychological therapy, like cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), is additionally effective, especially for situational depression. About one-third of depressed people will have treatment-resistant depression and may require specialized care. While depression is treatable, successful treatment is considered a remission rather than a cure because depression sometimes comes back. By treating depression not only with medications but also with appropriate counselling, the prospect of relapse is reduced.

People with undiagnosed or untreated depression are at high risk for the co-occurrence of depression and misuse. This can be because they’ll use addictive substances to “self-medicate” their depressive symptoms. It is one of the critical aspects of discussing “is depression hereditary.” This begins feedback where depression worsens substance use, and substance use worsens depression.

Depression doesn’t have a transparent inheritance pattern in families; however, individuals with a first-degree relative (such as a parent or sibling) with depression are two to three times more likely to develop the condition. On the other hand, many people who develop depression do not have an affected relative, and many individuals with an affected relative never develop it.

How can genetics play a role in depression?

Is depression hereditary
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Depression can be as frightening for doctors who treat the condition and, more importantly, the 300 million people worldwide who suffer from it. Genes play a significant role when discussing ” is depression hereditary.”

Investigations of DD etiopathogenesis genes have identified five genes whose polymorphic variants reliably predict onset despite their low sensitivity to dd. All these genes were mainly analyzed as monoamines for depression.

For some people, depression could also be primarily biological, meaning they inherited the predisposition to the condition. The biological component of the biopsychosocial (BSP) model looks at how things like genetic vulnerability, physical health, and gender affect mood. The psychological component focuses on self-esteem, coping skills, and emotionality and the social component accounts for family circumstances, socioeconomic status, peer relationships, and education level, among others. Any of these can contribute to the danger of developing depression.

Learn the signs of depression, so they’ll be ready to identify the symptoms quickly. Take measures to spice up their resilience, hardiness, and vulnerability to stressors, like learning better-coping skills or attending counselling in times of stress. Consult with your medical professional if the symptoms are worsening further.

What does research show?

Doctors have found a link between anxiety disorder and mental illness when discussing “is depression hereditary”. Identical twins have similar genes, whereas fraternal twins only share 50% of genes. This implies that these disorders may have inherited genes and are triggered by genetically inherited genes.

There is currently no known genetic cause of depression. The reason for this condition is not easily explained. Combinations between genes from one parent can affect whether one becomes anxious or depressed.

A history of the condition may increase the risk for children. If a baby witnesses a parent or sibling struggle with depression, they may develop a pessimistic outlook on life, which may well be a risk factor for depression. Those around you heavily influence your outlook on life.

Is depression hereditary for a child?

People who are depressed may worry about passing on their symptoms to their children. Although genetic factors can cause depression, genetic differences are rarely found in humans. A child without a mother with the disorder can also become depressed when exposed to trauma.

For the population, the lifetime risk of developing depression within the U.S. is 16.9%. Having a sibling with depression elevates that risk by about 1.5 times, while having an identical twin with depression elevates the possibility by about 2.8 times. These numbers demonstrate that having an account of depression is far from being a guarantee that a non-public will develop depression. However, they show that the possibility is higher for people with relations with depression than for the ultimate population.

As such, people with an account of depression could even be known to take some precautions, including learning the signs of depression, so they’ll be ready to identify these symptoms in themselves and family members quickly. Take measures to spice up their resilience, hardiness, and vulnerability to stressors, like learning better-coping skills or attending counselling in times of stress.

Environmental & other factors like genetics only determine an individual’s predisposition or likelihood of depression. The individual’s environment determines the rest. The environmental causes of depression are those things that frame the individual’s experiences and exposures in life. The foremost significant include childhood trauma, neglect, physical abuse, crime or emotional abuse.

The trauma 3can be one event, multiple events or even prolonged trauma, like years of sustained bullying in school, general maltreatment or poor parenting. Life stresses are the triggers for depression. They include financial stress, life transitions, grief and loss, and rumination. Overall health and nutritional status (especially while the brain is developing up until age 25), likewise as an individual’s resilience, hardiness and vulnerability to adverse conditions. Certain illnesses are strongly associated with depression, and some medications are known to induce depression, and it becomes hard to specify whether “is depression hereditary”.

Disturbance of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

Recent experiments have demonstrated a link between depression and disturbance in neurogenetic and neural development in adult brains. This phenomenon has been thought to occur due to metabolism disturbances in neurotrophic factors in nerve tissue. BDNF has abundant expression within limbic structures in adults. It was found that some studies link BDNF 4signalling pathways and neuronal function.

Genome-wide association analysis of depressive disorder

The presence of >20 genetic factors in DD 5is confirmed in a meta-analysis. In most cases, the association involves genes that are not directly related to depression etiopathogenetic. The association study appears connected with a transition to genomic-wide association analysis with no evidence of genetic risk factors for depression. In the first stages of GWASs, family members diagnosed with multiple depressive episodes were studied, with specific attention given to rare monogenics of depression.

Is anxiety genetic?

Is depression hereditary
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Many of these people also have anxiety disorders. Approximately 25% of patients have a comorbid mental illness or anxiety disorder. Research indicates that 65% to 80% of those with depression experience heightened feelings of depression. Although certain lifestyle factors may influence anxiety, researchers believe genetic components exist for such problems. Depending on the person’s genetics or environment, they are more likely to develop psychiatric.

Depression may need medical attention as well as psychotherapy. Occasionally, patients may receive multiple medications. You could affect what treatment you are getting. Some researchers are finding specific genes may affect the way your system absorbs, uses or excretes alcoholic beverages. Many genes are known to influence drug metabolic processes, although these results are generally helpful for physicians and researchers.

Even when a major depressive disorder or major depression is detected, it is often possible to control it via combination therapy. Psychotherapists often treat depression in various methods, which one must know while discussing over is depression hereditary.

Bottom Line

Using the recent research on DD onset and progression, the polygenic nature of inherited diseases is compared to inherited diseases without significant influence on the primary gene. Recent studies have shown that genes may have a significant contribution towards DD. The significant role of indigenous interactions hasn’t yet been investigated; it requires a new method for analyzing association studies that include the contribution from a combination of two or more polymorphic DNA markers.

The risk of depression is twice as high for close relatives. However, this risk is associated with several genetic factors. If your parents suffer from depression, it is not enough. Certain environmental conditions, such as trauma, may be contributing factors. Whether or not you suffer from depression or anxiety, it is essential to do what is necessary to prevent them. Finding therapists can help with learning to handle problems that may cause anxiety. Tell them about your family’s experiences with this or another condition. If you need help, contact the physician. Take in the most essential foods. The diet helps support body health. Keep your intake in line with nutritional requirements: reduce added calories.

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  1. Dorrier, Cayce E., et al. “Emerging roles for CNS fibroblasts in health, injury and disease.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 23.1 (2022): 23-34. ↩︎
  2. Luo, Jie, Hongyuan Yang, and Bao-Liang Song. “Mechanisms and regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.” Nature reviews Molecular cell biology 21.4 (2020): 225-245. ↩︎
  3. Coccolini, Federico, et al. “Liver trauma: WSES 2020 guidelines.” World Journal of Emergency Surgery 15 (2020): 1-15. ↩︎
  4. Duman, Ronald S., Satoshi Deyama, and Manoela Viar Fogaça. “Role of BDNF in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression: Activity‐dependent effects distinguish rapid‐acting antidepressants.” European Journal of Neuroscience 53.1 (2021): 126-139. ↩︎
  5. Liu, Junduo, et al. “Roxadustat (FG-4592) treatment for anemia in dialysis-dependent (DD) and not dialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease patients: A systematic review and meta‐analysis.” Pharmacological research 155 (2020): 104747. ↩︎

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