How to Shrink a Goiter Naturally: 10 Potent Natural Methods

Table of Contents Show
  1. 1. What is Goiter
    1. 1.1 Why Does It Arise
    2. 1.2 What Causes Goiter
  2. 2. How to Shrink a Goiter Naturally: 10 Natural Remedies
    1. 2.1. Apple Cider Vinegar
    2. 2.2. Castor Oil
    3. 2.3. Coconut Oil
    4. 2.4. Bentonite Clay
    5. 2.5. Seaweed
    6. 2.6. Dandelion Leaves
    7. 2.7. Ashwagandha
    8. 2.8. Neck Exercise
    9. 2.9. Garlic
    10. 2.10. Nuts
  3. 3. Herbal Teas for Shrinking a Goiter
    1. 3.1 Ginger Tea
    2. 3.2 Green Tea Extract
    3. 3.3 Licorice Root Bark
  4. 4. Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Shrinking a Goiter
  5. 5. Chinese Herbal Medicines for Shrinking a Goiter
    1. 5.1 Huang Qi (Chinese Chokecherry)
    2. 5.2 Zhen Zi (Cordyceps Sinensis)
    3. 5.3 Guaifenesin (Huang Fu Long)
  6. 6. Symptoms of a Goiter
  7. 7. Risk Factors of a Goiter
    1. 7.1. Iodine Deficiency
    2. 7.2. Being Female
    3. 7.3. Age Factor
    4. 7.4. Inherited Medical History
    5. 7.5. Pregnancy
    6. 7.6. Medications
    7. 7.7. Exposure To Radiation
  8. 8. Causes of a Goiter
    1. 8.1. Low Hormone Level
    2. 8.2. Iron Deficiency
    3. 8.3. No specific Cause
  9. 9. Diagnosis of Goiter
    1. 9.1. Thyroid Function Tests
    2. 9.2. Antibody Test
    3. 9.3. Thyroid Blood Test
    4. 9.4. Ultrasonography
    5. 9.5. Radioactive Iodine Uptake
    6. 9.6. Biopsy Test
  10. 10. Treatment of Goiter
    1. 10.1. Medications
    2. 10.2. Surgery
    3. 10.3. Radioactive Iodine Treatment
  11. 11. The Benefits of Shrinking a Goiter Naturally
    1. 11.1. Improved Physicality and Well-Being
    2. 11.2. Greater Clarity of Mind and Reduced Stress Levels
    3. 11.3. Increased Self-Esteem and Confidence
    4. 11.4. Reduced Anxiety and Stress Levels
    5. 11.5. Improved Breathing
    6. 11.6. Enhanced Appearance
    7. 11.7. Fewer Medical Expenses
  12. 12. Side Effects and Precautions while Undergoing the Natural Methods
  13. 13. Bottom-Line
  14. Authors

You must have seen someone having a goiter. You can see a bulging thing at the bottom of the neck to identify a goiter. They can be small to moderate-sized goiters1, widespread in the United States. If you’re looking for a natural way to shrink a goiter, you’re in the right place! In this article, we’ll outline natural methods to shrink a goiter naturally.

These methods, from diet modification to herbal remedies, are sure to help shrink your goiter and improve your health. So why wait? Try one or more of these methods to improve your health today!

However, this can happen to all ages. Some people have a goiter from birth, and the chances of getting a goiter are very high if you are a female over 40 years of age.

1. What is Goiter

Goiter will be a more common health issue if someone has a thyroid. Your doctor may order scans of your thyroid. A goiter looks like swelling in the neck because of an enlarged thyroid gland. However, the size of the goiter varies from small to large goiter.

But a goiter is a temporary issue that fades away without any medical treatments. However, if you face severe thyroid disease or disorder symptoms, you will have to deal with it quickly.

1.1 Why Does It Arise

Generally, goiter arises when the thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormones. Such a phase is known as hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid gland2.

It can also arise when the thyroid gland produces more than enough hormones. Such a phase is known as hyperthyroidism or an overactive thyroid gland. Also, they can even occur during inconsistent thyroid function, called euthyroid goiter.

If you’re looking for a natural way to shrink a goiter, you’re in the right place! In this article, we’ll outline 10 potent natural methods that can help reduce the size of your goiter. From diet modification to herbal remedies, these methods are sure to help shrink your goiter and improve your health in the process. So why wait? Start working towards better health today by trying one or more of these methods!

1.2 What Causes Goiter

Generally, a goiter occurs when imbalanced production of T3 and T4 hormones are released. The TSH receptor is the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone receptor3, which replies to the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone.

Sometimes, the goiter may also develop thyroid nodules. They are small lumps that can form on the thyroid gland. Those who relapse after a course of antithyroid drugs are usually prescribed radioactive iodine or undergo partial thyroidectomy. However, the thyroid nodules can either be solid or may be filled with some fluid.

Sometimes they can cause hyperthyroidism, but most of the time, they are harmless. Multinodular goiter is an extended thyroid gland that has multiple thyroid nodules. Often doctors recommend endocrine surgery to remove the thyroid glands since it can cause difficulty breathing or swallowing problems.

2. How to Shrink a Goiter Naturally: 10 Natural Remedies

If you are favorable to a goiter, you have other options except for surgery and drugs. You can try some natural methods to reduce the size of the goiter.

The natural methods you will find here can reduce your goiter size, but they work better alongside prescribed medications.

2.1. Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar is an acidic mix that can restore the lost pH and balance it in the body again.

Moreover, it helps to detoxify the body and increase iodine absorption. As a result, this will reduce thyroid swelling.

Shrink a Goiter Naturally
Image From: Shutterstock

To make this natural remedy, you need the following:

Put honey, vinegar, and water together, mix it well, and drink it. It would help if you did this every month, and it is recommended that you do this on an empty stomach.

2.2. Castor Oil

The castor oil’s anti-inflammatory properties help reduce the thyroid hormone’s abnormal enlargement. Moreover, it can also detoxify the liver, which converts T4 into active T3.

shutterstock 1042906594 scaled
Image From: Shutterstock

For this, you need just a few drops of castor oil and with it, massage it over your neck area. It would help if you did this every night before bed, and you must keep the oil all night.

2.3. Coconut Oil

Virgin coconut oil has a high lauric acid content with a medium triglyceride chain. It is converted to monolaurin4.

Since it has anti-inflammatory properties and is antimicrobial, it helps improve metabolism.

Coconut Oil
Image From: Shutterstock

To consume this natural remedy for reducing your goiter size, you can mix coconut oil into your hot drinks, smoothies, and salad.

You can even use this oil for cooking purposes.

2.4. Bentonite Clay

Bentonite Clay
Image From: Shutterstock

Natural clay has essential antimicrobial properties which keep the body clean from toxin building up. It helps reduce excess iodine and thus reduces the size of the goiter.

  • Apply this clay mask to your neck. It would help if you used this natural remedy every two to three days, and you could observe the swelling changes.
  • You need 3-4 tablespoons of bentonite clay and water to make this natural drug. It would help if you prepared a paste by adding appropriate water to the clay powder and mixing it well.
  • After applying it to your neck, please keep it for some time and clean it with plain water.

2.5. Seaweed

Seaweed can help produce iodine since it contains tyrosine, a supportive amino acid. It can help in producing enough thyroid hormones. Iodine content is very rich in seaweed, so it benefits those with hypothyroidism5.

Image From: Shutterstock

To get the benefits from seaweed, you must use this at least twice a week in your meal. However, it would help not to overdo it since it can increase iodine production. 6

Take a handful of seaweed, boil it, and prepare a salad to make the seaweed effective. You can even add some other dressings as per your taste.

2.6. Dandelion Leaves

Dandelion Leaves
Image From: Shutterstock

The dandelion leaves’ antioxidant properties can relieve goiter symptoms and pain. The dandelion leaves even have anti-inflammatory effects, which help reduce the thyroid gland’s swelling. You must use this for at least two weeks to benefit from the dandelion leaves.

To prepare this, you need to get the following:

  • Some dandelion leaves
  • Water
  • One tablespoon of clarified butter, also known as ghee

Mix the ground dandelion leaves with water, and make a paste. Then you need to add the ghee to the paste and heat the paste for a while. When it is lukewarm, you can apply it over your neck and rinse it off after 20 minutes.

2.7. Ashwagandha

Image From: Shutterstock

One of the most potent Ayurvedic herbs is the Ashwagandha. It can boost thyroid function effectively and also helps in producing T3 and T4 hormones.

Generally, stress increases cortisol levels; as a result, the thyroid hormones do not function properly. But, the Ashwagandha can fight stress and stimulate the endocrine secretions.

Use two tablespoons of ashwagandha bark powder in water. Take the 160ml of ashwagandha water mixture and boil it until the concoction exceeds 40% of its original volume.

You need to strain the mixture and divide the concoction. You should drink this water early in the morning and evening when it’s ready.

2.8. Neck Exercise

Neck Exercise
Image From: Shutterstock

Stretching your body always gives benefits. With the help of neck exercise, the thyroid gland gets stretched and can reduce swelling. In this case, you can perform neck stretch exercises to reduce the size of the goiter.

You can sit on a chair and lift your chin for a few seconds. It is very effective in training your neck muscles and your thyroid glands.

You can bend your neck to either side to stretch your neck muscles. Bend your neck until your ear touches the shoulder, and repeat it 10 times on both sides.

However, it would help if you did not stretch your neck muscles more than your capability since this can injure you. If you feel uneasy and in pain, stop the exercise right away.

2.9. Garlic

Selenium supplementation can give healthy functioning of your thyroid. The garlic pieces have vital power, which can control glutathione production in your body.

Since garlic has selenium, it can reduce the size of a goiter. A clove of garlic roughly has 1.28 gm of selenium.

Image From: Shutterstock

You must chew at least three to four garlic cloves early in the morning. However, if you do not feel the taste, you can add some honey to the crushed garlic cloves and then ingest it.

2.10. Nuts

Nuts are very rich in both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The nuts from Brazil are the most beneficial since they are very rich in selenium content, and as a result, they are very effective in reducing goiter size.

Moreover, they have anti-inflammatory properties that can stimulate the conversion of T4 hormones to T3 hormones. Brazil nuts have healthy fats that make them healthy to eat.

Image From: Shutterstock

To get the benefits of nuts, soak some nuts overnight and munch on them. It would help if you had plenty of nuts and could include them in breakfast, in-between meals, and as an evening snack.

You should try these natural methods to reduce the size of a goiter since medications can sometimes create some complications. However, even natural remedies are not safe until you use them under precautions and within limits.

3. Herbal Teas for Shrinking a Goiter

Herbal teas have been used for centuries to treat various health problems. One of the most commonly studied uses is shrinking goiter due to the overproduction of thyroid hormones.

Many different herbal teas can help shrink a goiter.

Some of the most popular include:

3.1 Ginger Tea

This tea is high in ginger, effectively shrinking tumors and reducing inflammation.

Drink two cups per day for best results.

3.2 Green Tea Extract

Green tea contains catechins, which have been shown to reduce the size and number of cells responsible for producing goiter growth.

Brew green tea using 4 ounces of water per cup and drink twice daily for best results.

3.3 Licorice Root Bark

Licorice contains glycyrrhetinic acid7, which can shrink enlarged thyroid glands by blocking their ability to produce excess hormones. Take 250 mg three times daily before meals with plenty of fluids to avoid potential side effects like stomach pain or diarrhea.

If you’re looking for an herbal solution to shrink your goiter, consider trying one of these teas rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatories.

4. Acupuncture and Moxibustion for Shrinking a Goiter

Acupuncture and moxibustion are two ancient Chinese medical treatments that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of health problems.

Acupuncture is based on the principle that energy flow (known as qi) is responsible for the function of all body organs and tissues. By using needles to stimulate specific points along the body’s meridians, acupuncturists believe they can help restore balance and improve overall health.

Moxibustion is similar to acupuncture in theory, but it uses mugwort instead of needles. Mugwort contains sesquiterpenoids, chemicals that have anti-inflammatory properties. These substances are believed to work by stimulating chi or energy in the body and helping to shrink goiters (enlarged lumps on the thyroid gland).

Both treatments are effective for shrinking a goiter, but no research has been done comparing their effectiveness. Ultimately, it is up to each patient whether or not they want to try acupuncture or moxibustion for shrinking a goiter.

So if you’re considering seeking acupuncture or moxibustion therapy for your Goiter problem, be sure to talk with your doctor before doing anything rash.

5. Chinese Herbal Medicines for Shrinking a Goiter

There are a variety of Chinese herbal medicines that can be used to shrink a goiter. Some herbs work better than others, and some may require multiple treatments over time to see any significant results.

Here are three Chinese herbal medicines that have been commonly used for shrinking a goiter:

5.1 Huang Qi (Chinese Chokecherry)

It is an herb traditionally used to treat throat problems and reduce swelling in the neck due to colds or flu.

It has been shown to shrink enlarged thyroid glands in clinical trials.

5.2 Zhen Zi (Cordyceps Sinensis)

Also known as caterpillar fungus, it is an immune system booster and traditional medicine for treating various diseases, including cancer, renal failure, asthma, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and arthritis.

Evidence suggests that Zhen Zi can help improve the function of the lower urinary tract by reducing inflammation and blocking enzymes from causing damage.

5.3 Guaifenesin (Huang Fu Long)

It is an expectorant and antispasmodic agent derived from Chrysanthemum flowers.8

It helps with the following symptoms:

  • Clear phlegm
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Balances blood sugar levels
  • Relieves pain
  • Eases breathing difficulties caused by coughs or bronchitis
  • Boosts energy levels
  • Regulates stomach motion during digestion
  • Assists fat absorption from food

6. Symptoms of a Goiter

Goiter is also known as Thyromegaly, and it is a large thyroid gland.

Goiter symptoms may include:

  • Due to the enlarged thyroid gland, you may face swelling at the bottom of your neck.
  • You feel something tight in your throat.
  • You may face difficulty swallowing.
  • Cough
  • Hoarseness
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing problems.

However, in a worst-case scenario, the goiter can put immense pressure on the windpipe, called the trachea, and the esophagus(food tube.) It will be hard for you to breathe when you lie flat on your back and significantly a large goiter.

Moreover, swallowing foods will be hard, and you may even experience pain in the thyroid area. When someone has a large goiter, it can cause neck vein distension and dizziness whenever they raise their arms.

7. Risk Factors of a Goiter

Some common goiter risk factors can be dangerous in a worst-case scenario.

Risk Factors Of A Goiter
Image From: Shutterstock

7.1. Iodine Deficiency

If you do not have enough iodine in your diet, you increase the chances of developing goiter. Still, in some cases, excessive intake of or exposure to iodine can trigger thyroid enlargement.

7.2. Being Female

Females often have thyroid disorders, so they risk developing a goiter.

7.3. Age Factor

People with more age have a greater chance of getting a goiter. People over 40 can develop a goiter due to other shortcomings.

7.4. Inherited Medical History

If you or your family have had autoimmune thyroid disease for a long time, you are at greater risk.

7.5. Pregnancy

Thyroid problems occur more often in pregnant women and during their menopause.

7.6. Medications

Some medical treatments can cause a rise in a goiter. Those medications can be immunosuppressants, antiretrovirals, and the drug amiodarone used for heart patients. Moreover, the psychiatric drug lithium (Lithobid or others) can also give rise to a goiter.

7.7. Exposure To Radiation

If you have already had radiation exposure, you are more prone to goiter symptoms.

Radiation treatments can be more dangerous, including neck or chest area treatments. Even exposure to radiation in a nuclear facility can give rise to a goiter.

8. Causes of a Goiter

There are three different types of goiter causes.

8.1. Low Hormone Level

People with a simple goiter cannot produce enough hormones required by the body.

From this, people suffer from a lack of hormones, and the thyroid gland tries to compensate for the lack of hormones by growing more prominent. As a result, a person lacking hormones can develop into a goiter.

8.2. Iron Deficiency

Iodine deficiency can help in developing a goiter formation. If the iodine intake is deficient, the compensation thyroid gland gets swollen to absorb the available iodine.

In the past, most people used to suffer from goiter problems, and due to this, iodine has been added to table salt since 1924. However, it is added in the form of potassium iodide to increase the iodine intake amount. As a result, the iodized salt helps in reducing the goiter formation.

8.3. No specific Cause

The sporadic goiter has no specific causes, but medicines can be the main reason for developing sporadic goiter for some people. The lithium used for treating some mental health conditions and other conventional medical treatments can lead to a goiter formation.

Eating many goiter-promoting foods makes you more likely to have a sporadic goiter. Foods that increase goiter formation chances include soybeans, cabbage, peaches, peanuts, spinach, and rutabagas. This is because they contain goitrogens which induce goiter formation.

These foods can suppress thyroid hormone production, which is done by disturbing the thyroid gland’s ability to process iodine levels. So, you must avoid having these foods regularly since they can be problematic for your thyroid health.

Some other health conditions and diseases can increase goiter formation, such as Graves disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and other forms of thyroiditis and pregnancy.

There is a chance of having a goiter if exposed to radiation.

9. Diagnosis of Goiter

You can identify the presence of a goiter during a physical exam. Doctors can also detect the presence of goiter by touching your neck. If they find a usual thyroid gland enlargement or multiple nodules, they will be sure that you have a goiter.

Diagnosis Of Goiter
Image From: Shutterstock

However, several different evaluations are needed for a proper diagnosis of goiter.

9.1. Thyroid Function Tests

It tests the amount of TSH the is producing. Also, it tests how much the thyroid is generating T-3 and T-4.

Thyroid function tests confirm whether the goiter is related to thyroid function.

9.2. Antibody Test

If your thyroid function test is insufficient to detect the goiter, your doctor may recommend having a blood test for antibodies linked to autoimmune thyroid disease9. Goiter, linked with Hashimoto’s and Graves’s disease, can be very dangerous.

9.3. Thyroid Blood Test

The thyroid blood testing process includes stimulating hormone (TSH), Free T4, and Freet3 test to evaluate the goiter.

9.4. Ultrasonography

Ultrasonography tests with sound waves create some computerized images from your neck tissues. The technician of the imaging technique uses devices identical to the wand, called a transducer, on the neck for performing this test.

Generally, the ultrasonography test or imaging test checks the thyroid glands’ size and detects multiple nodules.

9.5. Radioactive Iodine Uptake

If the health care provider asks you to do this test, you will be given a small amount of radioactive iodine. They will use a particular scanning device by which they can measure the amount and rate of thyroid intake.

This test may be combined with the radioactive iodine scan to visualize the uptaken patterns.

9.6. Biopsy Test

A tiny fine needle is guided through ultrasound into the thyroid to obtain a tissue or a fluid sample from the nodules.

It is done during a fine needle aspiration biopsy, and the sample collected is tested for traces of cancerous cells.

10. Treatment of Goiter

Goiter treatment depends on the goiter’s size, signs, and symptoms.

Treatment Of Goiter
Image From: Shutterstock

However, if the goiter is small and the thyroid functions correctly, the healthcare provider will suggest a slow treatment accompanied by regular checkups.

10.1. Medications

There are several medications to treat thyroid hormones and iodine deficiency. Some medications for goiter can work with

  • Increasing Hormone Production

Underactive thyroid is generally treated by thyroid hormone replacement. The T-4 is replaced by levothyroxine (Levoxyl and Thyquidity), which results in the pituitary gland releasing less TSH.

Such treatment can help you to decrease the size of a goiter.

A study has been made in this field to check the effectiveness of levothyroxine drugs on goiter, and it is clear that it helps reduce goiter size.

  • Reduce Hormone Production

If you suffer from an overactive thyroid, it can be treated with anti-thyroid medication, disrupting hormone production.

Most health care centers recommend having methimazole or Tapazole drug since this can reduce the size of a goiter.

  • Block Hormone Activities

Doctors often prescribe the Beta Blocker drug to manage hyperthyroidism symptoms.

Drugs, including atenolol or Tenormin and metoprolol or Lopressor, can disturb the thyroid hormones and cause other symptoms.

  • Manage The Pain

If you are suffering from pain from the inflammation of the thyroid, then it is cured by giving aspirin, naproxen, sodium, ibuprofen, or some other painkillers.

However, you will be asked to have steroids if you are suffering from severe goiter pain.

10.2. Surgery

If the goiter is in the worst condition and you are in a terrible situation, surgery will remove every part of the thyroid gland. It is often called total or partial thyroidectomy.

However, this surgery is only used when the patient is suffering from

  • Breathing or swallowing difficulty
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Hyperthyroidism caused the thyroid nodules

However, the thyroid gland removed will also be replaced by the hormone replacement method.

10.3. Radioactive Iodine Treatment

Radioactive iodine treatment is carried on for the overactive thyroid gland. The patient takes only tiny doses of radioactive iodine orally in this process.

As a result, the defective thyroid hormone takes up all the radioactive iodine and destroys the cells in the thyroid. Due to this, the abnormally produced hormone is either eliminated or reduced and thus helps in reducing the size of the goiter.

11. The Benefits of Shrinking a Goiter Naturally

There are many benefits to shrinking a goiter naturally. Not only will the individual feel better physically, but they will also have improved mental health and overall wellness.

Here are just some of the key benefits:

11.1. Improved Physicality and Well-Being

Goiters often cause fatigue, weight gain, and difficulty breathing. Shrinking the goiter will improve these symptoms significantly.

11.2. Greater Clarity of Mind and Reduced Stress Levels

Many people with goiters find that their thinking becomes crystal clear, and they no longer experience as much anxiety or stress related to their body size or appearance.

11.3. Increased Self-Esteem and Confidence

Having a smaller goiter can boost an individual’s self-esteem tremendously because it shows they’re taking control of their health destiny.

11.4. Reduced Anxiety and Stress Levels

A smaller goiter is less conspicuous, which may lead to reduced anxiety and stress levels.

11.5. Improved Breathing

Shrinking a goiter can improve lung function due to better airflow and ventilation. This may help you avoid respiratory problems in the future.

11.6. Enhanced Appearance

A smaller goiter typically looks more natural than a large one, which may give you an enhanced appearance that others may find more attractive.

11.7. Fewer Medical Expenses

If you’re prone to having hospital trips or surgery for various reasons unrelated to your thyroid gland (e.g., eating disorders), shrinking a thyroid gland could save you hundreds of dollars each year in medical expenses alone.

If you’re interested in shrinking your goiter naturally, there is no one definitive way to do so (although various methods work reasonably well). The most important thing is to stick with it – if you make gradual progress, you’ll be more likely to see consistent results over time.

12. Side Effects and Precautions while Undergoing the Natural Methods

While all of these herbs are considered safe and relatively nontoxic, they may cause side effects in individuals with certain medical conditions. Always consult with a healthcare provider before beginning any Chinese herbal therapy to understand the possible risks and benefits of using such remedies.

Additionally, follow any precautionary instructions listed on the product label or package insert. Avoid using these herbs if you are pregnant or nursing.

Consult your healthcare provider before using any Chinese herbal remedy if you have a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, thyroid problems, peptic ulcer disease, or glaucoma.

13. Bottom-Line

Goiter often gives unpleasant pain, but it is not untreatable. You must follow the medications given by your doctor correctly to heal quickly from the increased thyroid nodules.

However, if you have opted for natural remedies to treat your goiter, then you must know that goiter with natural remedies treatment is not an easy task. You have to keep in touch with a thyroid doctor and get frequent professional medical advice from your doctors.

You need to follow the dietary changes, supplements, and other significant lifestyle changes that help maintains thyroid hormone production.

If you doubt a goiter formation, you must visit your doctor and, on his advice, perform some goiter tests and be sure of it. Ignoring the abnormal thyroid hormone production can cause your life due to breathing and swallowing difficulty and many other health complications from thyroid hormone dysfunctioning.

Moreover, if you are over 40 years of age, you should be more careful about goiter since it can happen to anyone. According to American Thyroid Association, 40 million people in America have thyroid disease. In India, 9 percent population is suffering from thyroid problems, according to Statista. S

Make sure to follow your diet routines, which your advisor oversees. It will balance your hormones and check the thyroid problems causing goiter.

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  3. Szkudlinski, Mariusz W., et al. “Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor structure-function relationships.” Physiological reviews 82.2 (2002): 473-502. ↩︎
  4. Lieberman, Shari, Mary G. Enig, and Harry G. Preuss. “A review of monolaurin and lauric acid: natural virucidal and bactericidal agents.” Alternative & Complementary Therapies 12.6 (2006): 310-314. ↩︎
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  7. Kowalska, Agnieszka, and Urszula Kalinowska‐Lis. “18β‐Glycyrrhetinic acid: its core biological properties and dermatological applications.” International journal of cosmetic science 41.4 (2019): 325-331. ↩︎
  8. Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A., et al. “Regeneration from chrysanthemum flowers: a review.” Acta physiologiae plantarum 37 (2015): 1-16. ↩︎
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