Imagine you are in a grocery store, and the salesperson asks you to spare a few seconds to listen to his pitch. What would you say? Yes obviously. Then he explains the offers on the product, such as a bar of chocolate, and then requests you to taste a sample. You would be willing for that too. Then finally he persuades you to buy the product. What would you do? If you end up purchasing it, then right there, you’ve fallen prey to the foot in the door technique.
As funny as the foot in the door technique(FITD) sounds, it has a standard reference behind the origin of its name. They say that the reference comes from a door-to-door salesperson who keeps his foot to keep the door from shutting so that the customer has no other way but to listen to his marketing idea. He builds up from small requests and eventually comes up with a final appeal to purchase the product.
Similarly, the foot in the door technique is a submissive tactic to make the person agree to a more significant request by agreeing on a small request first. This technique works by creating a connection between the person who asks and the person who agrees. The latter feels obligated to agree to a larger request by accepting the initial request because of the urge to stay consistent with his initial approval.
History And Early Experiments
The term foot in the door technique was first put forward by Jonathan Freedman and Scott Fraser when they did a study to prove that granting a modest request can lead a person to agree to a large request. The study’s findings supported the theory of Freedman and Fraser, but there were a few controversies of its similarity to the self-perception theory.
A classic example of the foot in the door technique employed in research studies was: two groups were asked to put a sizeable unpleasant sign of ‘Drive carefully’ on their front yard to promote safe driving. Of these two groups, one was approached earlier and was asked to place a small sign of ‘Be a safe driver’ on their front window.
Almost all the members of the group agreed to it. Later, when they were approached to put a larger ‘Drive carefully’ sign, most of them showed compliance compared to the control group who were not approached in the past.
Numerous experiments regarding the foot in the door technique have shown that this tactic works well in convincing someone to comply, especially if the request is pro-social. In the above example, the first group has already demonstrated commitment to reducing accidents by putting a safe driver sign. They are more likely to agree to the second request even if it is more inconvenient because they want their decision for the first request to appear consistent.
The Concepts Behind The FITD Technique
What makes us agree to specific requests only after granting a minor initial request?
We can explain the compliance and commitment shown by us in terms of self-perception. For example, whenever a salesperson requests us to spare a few minutes to listen to their sales pitch, we comply with their request because it is easier than rejecting and making ourselves look bad.
Also, by agreeing to their initial request, we favor the person who made the request. This attitude leads to a self-perception that we are considerate and well-intended.
That is why when they come up with a more significant request; we feel obliged to comply even if it is not the best or a rational judgment. Moreover, we will likely agree to a later request to show consistent behavior with this positive self-perception.
b) Commitment And Consistency
We already established that the urge to maintain consistency in the past behavior is our compliance according to the foot in the door FITD technique. Customers agreeing to the first request shows their commitment to the salesperson. When the same person asks for a more significant commitment, we are likely to agree to the request to maintain the commitment and consistency.
Foot In The Door Phenomenon
The foot in the door phenomenon comes from the foot in the door technique itself. It is nothing but the tendency of the people to agree to more significant favors once they have accepted too many smaller ones.
Applications Of The Foot In The Door Technique
Lets us see a few examples of how the foot-in-the-door technique is applied daily.
1. To Boost Online Sales.
We can say that the digital form of the foot in the door technique works just as well as it works in person. Every company implements the foot in the door technique, especially in their online marketing strategy. First, they come up with a proper first request that most customers are capable and willing to do. A few examples for the first request are asking the customer for an email address, inviting the visitors to participate in an online survey, or going for a trial membership on their website.
All these are easy to do, and any user would agree to such requests. The next step is to come up with a second request. The second request could be more focused on conversion and is the critical move. One can make it immediately after the person agrees to the small request or sometime later. However, if there is a delay, it could affect the compliance of the customers.
A few forms of the second request can be asking for the credit card details, asking the customer to download the free software from their site, or attending a webinar on their site. The company or a website needs to have a strong plan and strategy to lure the customers into conversion.
2. Charitable Organizations
A few organizations might asks their website visitors to donate a few things such as money, unused clothes, or food for disaster relief. Most people have a positive attitude when it comes to charity and show compliance.
So later, come up with a larger request asking their visitors if they can spare some time to volunteer for their charity organization for free. The visitors are most likely to be consistent with their earlier behavior and later agree to the request.
Hospitals may ask the patients or visitors to fill a form or undergo a health survey, and they eventually get a screening procedure done. The foot in the door technique plays a significant role in conversions in such cases.
4. Web Marketing
Research has shown that the Find technique works well as a strategy for web marketing. You can ask the user for an email address; once the user provides it, the site can ask for huge favors such as reading an article, signing up for an ebook, and undergoing the free registration process. All these latter favors lead to the conversion of several users into an agreement with their terms and purchase of their products.
5. To Getting Testimonials
Ask the customers if they would agree to try out a free sample to give feedback. Once try out and provide positive feedback, they ask you to provide a testimonial to help them improve their sales.
By applying the foot in the door technique, you will get into your desired position. For example, if you want to work for a company hiring only part-time workers for different roles, accepting any work the company offers you gets you into the company. Once you are in, you can work up and impress your colleagues, which will get you into the desired position.
Other Common Examples For The Foot In The Door Technique
It is a commonly used persuasive technique used by others to get us in agreement.
Starting from “Can I go out to my friend’s house?” to “can I stay over the night?” your daughter makes you agree to her wishes, and it will be hard for you to reject her after letting her go in the first place.
Your friend might ask you if he can go through your psychology notes; it seems a plausible favor, but what if later he asks if he can borrow it for two weeks?
From “Can you help us by filling a form?” to ” Would like to hear the details of the plan?” a real estate agent could persuade to listen to his ventures.
In all these instances, you are most likely to agree to the large request because your compliance with the small request points out your commitment and consistency to the other person and makes it hard for you to turn them down.
Other Social Psychology Theories That Are Similar To The FITD Technique
i) Door In The Face Technique
The door in the face technique is a similar persuasive technique where the persuader gets the other person to comply by making a larger request first. In this compliance strategy, the persuader comes up with a more extensive proposal that is most likely to be rejected. Later they create a minor request for which the respondent will feel compelled to agree.
If you come up with an unlikely large request in first itself, the other person has no other choice but to turn you down. After rejecting your first request, the responder feels terrible, as if he owes you something for denying your request. If you come up with a small request, it is hard for them to reject you again. So they end up accepting the proposal.
In the door in the face technique, the foot is replaced by the door to represent the metaphor of slamming the door in one’s face ( denying the first request).
We use this technique more often than we know in our day-to-day life. While negotiating our salary with our employer, we ask for higher pay than we usually expect. When the employer could not agree to the number you asked for, you create a minor request asking for a lesser yet reasonable payment. Your employer will agree with your second request.
Research indicates that people who prefer change over consistency are more likely to fall for the door in the face technique than the foot in the door technique.
ii) The Low Ball Technique/ Bait And Switch Strategy
The low ball technique is more similar to the FITD technique than the door in the face technique. Here, the persuader makes the person agree to a low ball offer they had no intention of keeping. Later they come up with an excuse to create a more extensive request. The person finds it hard to deny the new demand because he had already shown commitment to the process, and moving on from that is hard.
For instance, you wanted to buy a phone, you and the salesman mutually agreed to a price, and everything is great so far. Later, the salesman says that he could not get his manager to approve the price and quote a higher price.
You will find it hard to say no and leave the site because you have shown commitment by agreeing to the initial price; now, when the request becomes unreasonable, it will be challenging to give up the process and say no.
iii) Self-perception Theory
Self-perception theory is a social psychology theory which states that people develop their attitude regarding a decision based on their past behavior. Self-perception theory asserts two essential statements.
- Every person comes to a belief based on his previous desires and likings, and for every such experience, there is a positive or a negative outcome.
- If a person does not like something, there is no proper explanation for why he lacks interest in that particular thing, which can be attributed to self-knowledge.
When a website asks its user to sign up for free, they do it. Later, when they ask the user to fill up a form or take a survey online, they keep in mind their previous behavior of showing compliance to the website and later continue to fill the form to deliver consistency in their attitude.
iv) That’s Not All Technique.
It is one of the modified forms of the door in the face technique. Here the persuader comes up with a more considerable initial favor. Even before the other person responds, they modify the request into their target request by making it more reasonable or attractive by adding some benefit which leads the customers to comply.
Compliance with the latter is much more likely than the target request presented itself right at the beginning.
Limitations Of Foot In The Door Technique
- Firstly, the technique works only when the person voluntarily complies with the initial requests positively. If you force them to comply, then the process doesn’t work.
- The theory works only if the scale of subsequent requests is comparable to each other. The small requests should be considerable enough to create self-perception in them. Only that leads to their conversion to accept the latter. Again, the larger requests should be moderate enough for them to take. For example, if you get a person to buy your product (initial request) and later come up with a price that is not reasonable, no form of foot in the door is going to work on fetching you a deal.
- The foot in the door technique doesn’t work with people with unconventional mindsets. A few might respond well to the door in the face technique rather than the foot in the door technique.
- While applying the foot in the door technique, sometimes people might feel that you are meddling into their personal space.
The foot in the door technique is a persuasive technique that tricks you into agreeing to larger requests by showing agreement to more minor requests. According to psychology, the key to this technique is the need to maintain consistency with oneself.
The foot in the door technique applies to salespeople, customers, visitors, and anyone in any situation and is proven to lead to a conversion in a person’s expected behavior. So, you can use this technique to persuade others or prevent yourself from being swayed.
Some people might even find the foot in the door technique to be intrusive. Nobody wants the salesman to barge in or interrupt their work by putting their foot in the door and make you listen to their pitch forcibly. It isn’t very respectful and not appreciated. When the customers are not interested in your product, no form of foot in the door technique can sell it.
Lastly, the foot in the door technique is not entirely about conversions. Don’t push your luck by making unreasonable requests. It is good to know how far to go, and make sure to take your time. Always ask for something only when you are pretty sure that you get a yes. Then ask for something bigger.
Implementing the foot in the door technique properly can improve your communication skills and might enhance the progress of your work.
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